1. The figure showing part of right pelvic girdle and lower limb bones is given here. Identify the parts labelled as A to E and select the correct option.
2. Study the following flowchart and fill up the blanks by selecting the correct option.
3. Which of the following correctly characterizes a “fast- oxidative” type of skeletal muscle fibre?
(a) Few mitochondria and high glycogen content
(b) Low myosin ATPase rate and few surrounding capillaries
(c) Low glycolytic enzyme activity and intermediate contraction velocity
(d) High myoglobin content and intermediate glycolytic enzyme activity
4. Match column-1 with Column-ll and select the correct option from the codes given below.
5. If a stimulus, several times greater than the threshold stimulus, is provided to a muscle fibre, it will
(a) contract with a larger force
(b) contract with a smaller force
(c) contract with the same force
(d) undergo tetany.
6. Which of the following is correct regarding changes in muscle fibre from relaxed to contracted state in the given figure?
(a) The length of the thick and thin myofilaments has changed.
(b) Length of both anisotropic and isotropic band has changed.
(c) The myosin cross-bridges move on the surface of actin and the thin and thick myofilaments slide past each other.
(d) Length of the sarcomere remains same.
7. During muscular contraction, which of the following events occur?
(i) H-zone disappears
(ii) A band widens
(iii) I band reduces in width
(iv) Width of A band is unaffected
(v) M line and Z line come closer.
(a) (i), (iii), (iv) and (v)
(b) (i), (ii) and (v)
(c) (ii), (iv) and (v)
(d) (i), (ii) and (iii)
8. Paget’s disease is caused by
(a) prolonged deficiency of vitamin D in adults
(b) abnormal bone resorption by abnormal osteoclasts
(c) excess alkaline phosphatase
(d) excess production and abnormal organization of collagen.
9. Gout is a disease that affects the joints and leads to arthritis. It is associated with an abnormality of
(a) pyrimidine metabolism
(b) purine metabolism
(c) fat metabolism
(d) protein metabolism.
10. Which of the following is a sesamoid bone?
11. In hurdle race, what is the major energy source of the leg muscle ?
(a) Preformed ATP
(c) Pyruvate and lactate
(d) Oxidative metabolism
12. Which is not true in muscle contraction?
(a) Actin and myosin make actomyosin.
(b) Phosphate reserve comes from phosphocreatine.
(c) Chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy.
(d) Mechanical energy is converted into chemical energy.
13. If a muscle undergoes rapid contraction and relaxation, the sarcoplasmic reticulum extension
(a) requires constant plugging in and out of Ca2+
(b) rapid synthesis of myosin
(c) do not require energy
(d) all of the above.
14. What will happen if ligaments are torn ?
(a) Bones will move freely at joint and no pain.
(b) Bone will be less movable at joint and painful.
(c) Bone will become unfixed.
(d) Bone will become fixed.
15. The peg like process in the axis that allows the rotatory movement of the skull is
(b) odontoid process
(d) synovial capsule.
True or False
16. The globular head of myosin is an inactive ATPase enzyme, with binding sites for ATP and active sites for actin.
17. Mechanism of muscle contraction is best explained by the sliding filament theory, which states that contraction of muscle fibre takes place by the sliding of thick filaments over the thin filaments.
18. During muscle shortening, T bands get reduced, but A’ bands retain their length.
19. Actin filaments are more numerous, and six of them surround a myosin filament.
20. Single unit muscles are compact muscles where the individual cells are joined together by gap junctions e.g., skin.
21. The cardiac muscle cells produce a prohormone peptide for reducing blood pressure.
22. Scapula is a large triangular bone situated in the ventral part of the thorax, between the second and the seventh ribs.
23. The largest muscle of the human body is quadriceps femoris while the longest is gluteus maximus.
24. Oscordis is the bone present in the heart of deer.
25. Elbow joint is an example of hinge as well as pivot joint.
Match The Columns
26. Match Column-I with Column-ll and select the correct option from codes given below.
27. Match Column-I with Column-ll and select correct options from codes given below. There can be more than one match for items in Column-I
Passage Based Questions
28. (A) Complete the given passage with appropriate words or phrases.
Each thin filament is made of two (i) helically wound to each other. Each (ii) is a polymer of monomeric (iii). Two filaments of another protein (iv) also run close to (iv) throughout its length. A complex protein (vi) is distributed at regular intervals on the (vii) . (B) Read the passage and correct the errors, wherever present.
Densely stained M line bisects the I bands. A sarcomere has, therefore, one I band and two half A bands. The central part of each A band has a variable Z line. T tubules of mammalian striated muscle fibers occur at the junction of M and I band.
Assertion & Reason
In each of the following questions, a statement of Assertion is given and a corresponding statement of Reason is given just below it. Of the statements, mark the correct answer as :
(a) if both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) if both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) if A is true but R is false
(d) if both A and R are false.
29. Assertion : Lifting of a book involves the flexing movement over elbow joint and represents the second order lever.
Reason : Here, the end of the arm with the load functions as the force, while the elbow joint functions as a fulcrum and triceps attached to ulna as resistance.
30. Assertion: Vertebrae in birds are heterocoelous.
Reason : They are saddle shaped with concavo-convex centra.
31. Assertion : Spongy bone has irregular, intersecting plates or trabeculae forming the matrix.
Reason : Spongy bone is richly vascularised.
32. Assertion : The two bones of fore or lower arm are radius and ulna.
Reason : Both bones are curved, with radius towards the side of the little finger, and ulna towards the thumb.
33. Assertion : Pelvic girdle is an irregular trough shaped bony complex consisting of two halves called innominates or coxals.
Reason : Innominates are joined together by freely movable pubic symphysis.
34. Assertion : Humerus and femur develop through calcification or ossification of cartilage.
Reason : Parietal and frontal develop in the dermis of skin as thin plates.
35. Assertion : Deficiency of dystrophin protein causes muscular dystrophy.
Reason : Dystrophin relays nerve impulses to the endoplasmic reticulum for release of Ca2+.
36. Assertion : White muscle fibres are thick, broad and perform strenuous contractions.
Reason : They contain large number of mitochondria.
37. Assertion : Cori’s cycle drains out lactic acid formed in muscle fibers, to prevent muscle fatigue.
Reason : It regenerates glycogen and replenishes glucose to muscles.
38. Assertion : Increase in intensity of stimulus does not increase the contraction of the muscles.
Reason : Individual muscle fibers do not follow All or none law’.
Figure Based Questions
39. In the given figure, identify the bones A to K.
40. (a) Using the figure above, write down the letters for the bones of the cranium.
(b) Using the letters above, write down the letters for the facial bones.