1. A person who is on a long hunger strike and is surviving only on water, will have
(a) less amino acids in his urine
(b) more glucose in his blood
(c) less urea in his urine
(d) more sodium in his urine.
2. If Henle’s loop were absent from mammalian nephron, which one of the following is to be expected ?
(a) There will be no urine formation.
(b) There will be hardly any change in the quality and quantity of urine formed.
(c) The urine will be more concentrated.
(d) The urine will be more dilute.
3. Fresh water bony fishes maintain water balance by
(a) excreting a hypotonic urine
(b) drinking small amount of water
(c) excreting salt across their gills
(d) excreting wastes in form of uric acid.
4. Two examples in which the nitrogenous wastes are excreted from body in the form of uric acid are
(a) birds and lizards
(b) insects and bony fishes
(c) mammals and molluscs
(d) frogs and cartilaginous fishes.
5. Which of the following is correct ?
(a) Water reabsorption in descending limb of loop and collecting duct occur under similar conditions.
(b) Sodium reabsorption in ascending limb of loop and collecting duct occur under similar conditions.
(c) Water reabsorption in descending limb of loop and collecting duct occur under different conditions.
(d) Water reabsorption in descending limb and sodium reabsorption in ascending limb of loop occur under similar conditions.
6. The presence of arginase confirms that
(a) urea cycle is operating
(b) urea cycle may be operating
(c) arginine is being converted into ornithine
(d) arginine is being converted into citrulline.
7. An X-ray of the lower abdomen shows a shadow in the region of the ureter suspected to be an ureteric calculus. A possible clinical symptom would be
(a) acute renal failure (ARF)
(b) anuria and haematuria
(c) motor aphasia
(d) chronic renal failure (CRF).
8. Reabsorption of chloride ions (Cl) from the glomerular filtrate, in the kidney tubule of mammal, is carried out by
(a) osmosis (b) active transport
(c) diffusion (d) Brownian movement.
9. The net filtration present in the glomerulus of the kidney is
(a) 70 mm Fig (b) 35 mm Fig
(c) 25 mm Fig (d) 10 mm Hg.
10. The given figure shows reabsorption and secretion of major substances at different parts of the nephron. The movement of which of the following substances is wrongly depicted?
(a) NaCI and Kf at DCT
(b) NaCI and NFC at PCT
(c) NaCI at ascending limb of loop of Henle
(d) H20 at descending limb of loop of Henle
11. Select the correct option representing the parts of nephron that respectively absorb (i) glucose, (ii) amino acids, (iii) inorganic ions (Na1, Kf, Cl), and (iv) urea in maximum.
12. Juxtaglomerular apparatus is made up of
(a) juxtaglomerular cell, macula densa and lacis cell
(b) juxtaglomerular cell, Purkinje cell and chief cell
(c) juxtaglomerular cell, lacis cell and myoepithelial cell
(d) juxtaglomerular cell, macula densa and argentaffin cell.
13. Pick the odd ones in each of the following groups and select the correct option.
(i) Renal pelvis, Medullary pyramid, Renal cortex, Renal papilla
(ii) Afferent arteriole, Henle’s loop, Vasa recta, Efferent arteriole
(iii) Glomerular filtration, Antidiuretic hormone, Hypertonic urine, Collecting duct
(iv) Proximal convoluted tubule, Distal convoluted tubule, Henle’s loop, Renal corpuscle
14. Select the correct option representing the excretory organs present in (i) earthworm, (ii) centipede, (iii) prawn, and (iv) flatworm.
15. Which one of the following statements is incorrect?
(a) The medullary zone of kidney is divided into a few conical masses called medullary pyramids projecting into the calyces.
(b) Inside the kidney the cortical region extends in between the medullary pyramids as renal pelvis.
(c) Glomerulus along with Bowman’s capsule is called the renal corpuscle.
(d) Renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) and distal convoluted tubule (DCT) of the nephron are situated in the cortical region of kidney.
True or False type questions
Ornithine cycle operates in the kidney cells in which ammonia formed from deamination of amino acids reacts with carbon dioxide and phosphate of ATP to form carbamoyl phosphate.
Amniotes have an anterior kidney called metanephros.
Loops of Henle are longer in birds and mammals for producing hypertonic urine.
Creatinine has high molecular weight and is the breakdown product of adenosine triphosphate. Tubular secretion takes place by active transport and increases the volume of glomerular filtrate.
Kidney functions are controlled by negative feedback circuits involving ADH, RAAS and ANF.
Urine is hypertonic and nearly four times more concentrated than blood plasma.
Hepatic vein has highest concentration of urea, whereas renal vein has the least concentration of urea.
Epithelial cells of large intestine excrete Ca, Mg and Fe into the lumen of intestine, along with faecal matter.
Ammonia is generally excreted by diffusion across the body surface and gill surface in the gaseous form.
Match The Columns
Match Column-I with Column-ll and select the correct option from the codes given below.
27. Match Column-I with Column-ll and select correct options from codes given below. There can be more than one match for items in Column-1.
Passage Based Questions
28. (A) Complete the given passage with appropriate words or phrases.
(i) in blood pressure due to (ii) in blood volume stimulates cells of cardiac atria to secrete (iii]. This inhibits release of (iv) by (v) thereby inhibiting reabsorption of (vi) and (vii)) by DCT and collecting tubule.
(B) Read the passage and correct the errors, wherever present.
The rise in blood pressure due to increase in blood volume will stimulate the glomerular cells to release angiotensin II, which converts angiotensin II to angiotensinogen and further to angiotensin I.
Assertion & Reason
In each of the following questions, a statement of Assertion is given and a corresponding statement of Reason is given just below it. Of the statements, mark the correct answer as :
(a) if both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) if both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) if A is true but R is false
(d) if both A and R are false.
29. Assertion : Kidneys regulate blood pressure through secretion and non-secretion of renin.
Reason : Renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin, which increases Na+ reabsorption, thereby raising the blood pressure.
30. Assertion: pH of urine is acidic, but becomes alkaline on standing.
Reason : Consumption of fruits and proteinaceous diet increases the acidity, whereas consumption of vegetables decreases acidity.
31. Assertion : Renal threshold of glucose is 180 mg/100 ml of blood.
Reason : If this level exceeds, glucose will not be reabsorbed and is excreted in urine.
32. Assertion : Sebaceous glands eliminate sterols, hydrocarbons and waxes through sebum.
Reason : This secretion provides a protective oily covering for the skin.
33. Assertion : ANF mechanism acts as a check on the renin-angiotensin mechanism.
Reason : ANF causes vasodilation and thereby decreases the blood pressure.
34. Assertion : Albuminuria refers to the occurrence of albumin or serum proteins in urine.
Reason : It occurs due to inflammation of glomeruli, when the size of filtration slits increase.
35. Assertion : Tubular reabsorption is not recorded in marine fishes and desert amphibians.
Reason : This is due to the absence of glomerulus.
36. Assertion : Ascending limb of loop of Henle is called diluting limb.
Reason : It is impermeable to water, but loses NaCI to interstitial fluid.
37. Assertion : Blood vessels of the kidney are innervated by nerve fibers of the sympathetic nervous system.
Reason : When activated, the nerve fibers bring constriction of renal arteries and cause decrease in blood flow as well as glomerular filtration rate.
38. Assertion : Reabsorption of Na\ K~ and Ca2+ occurs through primary active transport.
Reason : Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed through secondary active transport.
Figure Based Questions
39. Refer to the figure below and identify the labelled parts – A, B, C, D and E.
40. In the given figure, marked A to E, identify the main areas for the following processes of urine formation:
i. Reabsorption of NaCI
ii. Secretion of H+
iii. Reabsorption of HCO–
iv. Secretion of K+
v. Reabsorption of H2O
vi. Secretion of NH3