The Nature of Scientific Investigations
Scientific methods are used by scientists to help organize and plan their experiments and investigations. The flow chart below outlines some of the methods commonly used by scientists.
Scientists work in many different places to gather data. No matter where they work, they all use similar methods to gather data and communicate information. These methods are referred to as scientific methods. As illustrated in the below flowchart, scientific methods are a series of problem-solving procedures that help scientists conduct experiments. Whatever problem a scientist chooses to pursue, he or she must gather background information on the topic. Once the problem is defined and the background research is complete, a hypothesis is made. A hypothesis is a testable explanation of a situation that can be supported or disproved by careful procedures. It is important to note that scientific methods are not rigid, step-by-step outlines to solve problems. Scientists can take many different approaches to performing a scientific investigation. In many scientific investigations, for example, scientists form a new hypothesis after observing unexpected results. A researcher might modify a procedure, or change the control mechanism. And a natural phenomenon might change the direction of the investigation.
An experiment is classified as an organized procedure that involves making observations and measurements to test a hypothesis. Collecting good qualitative and quantitative data is vital to the success of an experiment. Imagine a scientist is conducting an experiment on the effects of acid on the weathering of rocks. In this experiment, there are three different samples of identical rock pieces. The scientist does not add anything to the first sample. To the second and third samples, the scientist adds two different strengths of acid. The scientist then makes observations (qualitative data) and records measurements (quantitative data) based on the results of the experiment.
A scientific experiment usually tests only one changeable factor, called a variable, at a time. The independent variable in an experiment is the factor that is changed by the experimenter. In the experiment described above, the independent variable was the strength of the acid.
A dependent variable is a factor that is affected by changes in the independent variable. In the experiment described above, the dependent variable was the effect of the acid on the rock samples. Constants are factors that do not change during an experiment. Keeping certain variables constant is important to an experiment. Placing the same amount of acid on each rock tested, or using the same procedure for measurement, are two examples.
A control is used in an experiment to show that the results of an experiment are a result of the condition being tested. The control for the experiment described above was the rock that did not have anything added to it.
Earth scientists cannot always control the aspects of an experiment. It would be impossible to control the rainfall or temperature when studying the effects of a new fertilizer on thousands of acres of corn. When this is the case, scientists refer to their research as an investigation. An investigation involves observation and collecting data but does not include a control. Investigations can often lead scientists to design future experiments based on the observations they have made.
Many of the experiments and investigations in this book will require that you handle various materials and equipment. When conducting any scientific investigation, it is important to use all materials and equipment only as instructed. Refer to the Reference Handbook for additional safety information and a table of safety symbols.
Analysis and conclusions
New ideas in science are carefully examined by the scientist who made the initial discovery and by other scientists in the same field. Processes, data, and conclusions must be examined to eliminate influence by expectations or beliefs, which is called bias. During a scientific experiment, all data are carefully recorded. Once an experiment is complete, graphs, tables, and charts are commonly used to display data. These data are then analyzed so that a conclusion can be drawn. Many times, a conclusion does not support the original hypothesis. In such a case, the hypothesis must be reevaluated and further research must be conducted.[/userpro_private]