Introduction Viruses are still biologists’ puzzle because they show both living and nonliving characters. Hence viruses are regarded as a separate entity. It is not taken into account in Whittaker’s five kingdom classification. Viruses are now defined as ultramicroscopic, disease causing intra cellular obligate parasites. Brief history of discovery Viruses were not known to biologists … Read more Viruses

Growth of Microbes

Living organisms grow and reproduce. The growth indicates that an organism is in active metabolism. In plants and animals one see the increase in height or size. In a butterfly, a small larva hatching from egg grows in size, moults, pupates and become an adult butterfly through metamorphosis. Growth in a common use refers to … Read more Growth of Microbes

Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

Based on the source of carbon microorganisms are grouped as autotrophs and heterotrophs. Some can use CO2 as their sole source of carbon like plants and algae are termed as autotrophs. Others like some bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes utilize preformed organic compounds as carbon source and hence called heterotrophs. Most organisms that involve in decomposition … Read more Autotrophs and Heterotrophs


Diversity in living organisms There is a great diversity among living organisms found on the planet earth. They differ in their structure, habit, habitat, mode of nutrition, and physiology. The Biodiversity of the earth is enormous. Current estimates suggest that the earth may have anywhere from 10 to over 40 million species of organisms, but … Read more Systematics

Natural Resources

Our environment provides us with a variety of goods and services necessary for our day to day lives. These natural resources include, air, water, soil, minerals, along with the climate and solar energy, which form the non-living or ‘abiotic’ part of nature. The ‘biotic’ or living parts of nature consists of plants and animals, including … Read more Natural Resources

Definition & scope – Environmental Studies

Definition Environmental studies deals with every issue that affects an organism. It is essentially a multidisciplinary approach that brings about an appreciation of our natural world and human impacts on its integrity. It is an applied science as its seeks practical answers to making human civilization sustainable on the earth’s finite resources. Its components include … Read more Definition & scope – Environmental Studies

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