Cytological Techniques

Cells are transparent and optically homogeneous organisations. They can be observed either directly or after preservation. For direct observation, the specimen needs sufficient contrast. Direct observation is possible by using vital stains. Vital stains :- Vital dyes or stains are taken up by living cells without killing them. They selectively stain intracellular structures without affecting … Read more Cytological Techniques

Internal structure of Chloroplast

Electron microscopy shows the chloroplast to consist of an envelope enclosing a complex of membranes, the thylakoid system often joined or stacked into grana; the lipid membranes, contrast with the background when stained with lipophilic electron dense osmium. The space between the envelope and thylakoid membranes is the chloroplast stroma. The envelope is composed of … Read more Internal structure of Chloroplast

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