In 1676 Anton Van Leeuwenhoek discovered the microbial world by his simple microscope. It was only after the invention of compound microscope by Hooke in 1820, that bacteria came to lime light. These very minute creatures were designated as “small microscopic species” or “ Infusorial animalcules”. Louis pasteur(1822-95 ) made a detailed study of bacteria … Read more Bacteria

Significance of Viruses

1. Viruses are a kind of biological puzzle to biologists since they are at the threshold of living and non-living things showing the characteristics of both. 2. They are very much used as biological research tools due to their simplicity of structure and rapid multiplication. They are widely used in research especially in the field … Read more Significance of Viruses

Cell Wall

Plant and bacterial cell membranes are surrounded by a thick cell wall. Bacterial cell wall The bacterial cell is enclosed within a wall that differs chemically from the cell wall of plants. The cell wall contains a rigid framework of polysaccharide chain cross linked with short peptide chains and its outer surface is coated with … Read more Cell Wall

Pure Culture Methods

In the natural environments microorganisms exist in mixed cultures. To establish the role of microbial agent to a disease process, it is essential to demonstrate the organisms or its components in the diseased tissues. To accomplish this, the organism must be cultivated from the tissues. Similarly to know the kinds of organism present in the … Read more Pure Culture Methods

Sterilization Process

Definition Sterilization is the freeing of an article from all living organisms, including bacteria and their spores. Sterilization of culture media, containers and instruments is essential in microbiological work for isolation and maintenance of microbes. In surgery and medicine, the sterilization of instruments, drugs and other supplies is important for the prevention of infection. Sterilization … Read more Sterilization Process


Vinegar literally means ‘sour wine’. It is manufactured by the bacterial oxidation of ethanol in fermented wine, beer or cider and used as a condiment and preservative. The initial step is the fermentation of wine by varieties of S.cerevaciae. This leads to the formation of ethanol which is a prolonged reaction. After completion of fermentation, … Read more Vinegar

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