When Darwin put forward his assumptions, the disciplines of genetics, microbiology, and biochemistry did not yet exist. If they had been discovered before Darwin put forward his theory, Darwin might easily have recognised that his theory was totally unscientific and might not have attempted to advance such meaningless claims. The information determining the species already exists in the genes and it is impossible for natural selection to produce new species through alterations in the genes.
Similarly, the world of science in those days had a very shallow and crude understanding of the structure and functions of the cell. If Darwin had had the chance to view the cell with an electron microscope, he would have witnessed the great complexity and extraordinary structure in the organelles of the cell. He would have beheld with his own eyes that it would not be possible for such an intricate and complex system to occur through minor variations. If he had known about bio-mathematics, then he would have realised that not even a single protein molecule, let alone a whole cell, could not have come into existence by chance.
Detailed studies of the cell were only possible after the discovery of the electron microscope. In Darwin’s time, with the primitive microscopes seen here, it was only possible to view the outside surface of the cell. The cell conceals an exceedingly complex structure.