How the structure of the leaf relates to its adaptations for photosynthisis

thanks for the 1000+ views!!! External features The waxy cuticle at the top of the leaf is transparent, allowing light to enter for photosynthesis. It also stops transpiration from happening through the leaf, other than in the stomata. The upper epidermal cells are also transparent to allow light in to reach the chloroplasts for photosynthesis. The lower epidermis has stomata, which allow gaseous exchange to occur. Gaseous exchange being the intake of CO2 and the release of O2, which is essential for photosynthesis. The leaf is thin, and has a very large surface area – making it ideal for diffusion and absorbsion. The larger the surface area, the more sunlight can be absorbed. The leaf is also thin so that the mesophyll cells are closer to the surface – reducing the diffusion distance of CO2 from the surroundings to the mesophyll cells. Internal features Vascular Tissue This is to do with the xylem and the phloem. The xylem is always at the top of the leaf, and the phloem at the bottom because the xylem transports water(needed for photosynthesis) to the leaf cells, and diffuses into the chloroplasts.The phloem transports food from the mesophyll cells to the rest of the plant. The xylem and phloem are vascular tissue that are situated in the leaf vein. The vein is supported by fibres(sclerenchyma), which keep the shape of the leaf, flat. Mesophyll There are two main types of Mesophyll cells, the palisade and spongy cells.Palisade – contain the most chloroplast, and are at
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