While the foremost necessity is prevention, setting up effluent treatment plants and treating waste through these can reduce the pollution load in the recipient water. The treated effluent can be reused for either gardening or cooling purposes wherever possible. A few years ago a new technology called the Root Zone Process has been developed by Thermax.
This system involves running contaminated water through the root zones of specially designed reed beds. The reeds, which are essentially wetland plants have the capacity to absorb oxygen from the surrounding air through their stomatal openings.
The oxygen is pushed through the porous stem of the reeds into the hollow roots where it enters the root zone and creates conditions suit-able for the growth of numerous bacteria and fungi. These micro-organisms oxidize impurities in the wastewater, so that the water which finally comes out is clean.