Ecology & Environment MCQs Part V

1) The lentic ecosystem includes
a) Gravitational water
b) Standing water
c) Rain water
d) Running water

2) An ecosystem may be defined as a
a) Group of plants which act as the energy suppliers
b) Group of organisms which form a population
c) Functional unit for ecological studies
d) None of these

3) In an aquatic environment microscopic animals
and plants are collectively known as

a) Commensals
b) Herbivores
c) Fauna and flora
d) Plankton

4) Which of the following habitats is most unsuitable
for primary productivity?

a) A meadow
b) A forested river bank
c) a cave
d) A pond

5) The tip of the ecological pyramid is occupied by
a) Herbivores
b) Carnivores
c) Producers
d) Top carnivores

6) The zooplanktonic forms are
a) Primary consumers
b) Secondary consumers
c) Carnivores
d) Primary producers

7) Food chains are met with in the
a) Sea
b) Forests
c) Deserts
d) All these places

8) In India tropical rainforests are found in
a) Darjeeling
b) Karnataka
c) the Andamans
d) Jammu and Kashmir

9) Maximum carbon dioxide fixation is done by
a) Bacteria
b) Phytoplankton
c) Zooplankton
d) Green plants

10) As it travels along the food chain the concentration
of DDT

a) Decreases
b) Increases
c) Fluctuates randomly
d) Stays constant

11) Which is the most stable ecosytem?
a) A mountain
b) A desert
c) A forest
d) The ocean

12) In a food chain herbivores are
a) Producers
b) Primary consumers
c) Secondary consumers
d) Decomposers

13) The term biocoenosis was coined by
a) Mobius
b) Warming
c) Odum
d) S.C. Pandya

14) The bulk of nitrogen in nature is fixed by
a) Chemical industries
b) Symbiotic bacteria
c) Denitrifying bacteria
d) Lightning

15) Which has a sedimentary cycle?
a) Sulphur
b) Carbon
c) Water
d) Nitrogen

16) The water cycle is made up of two overlapping cycles:
a) Oceanic and fresh water cycles
b) Global and biological cycles
c) Ground water and atmospheric cycle
d) Surface water and atmospheric cycles

17) The sedimentary cycle having a small gaseous component is found

a) Carbon
b) Sulphur
c) Nitrogen
d) Phosphorus

18) Today the concentration of greenhouse gases is high because of
a) The use of refrigerators
b) Increased combustion of oil and coal
c) Deforestation
d) All of the above

19) There is no life on the moon because there is no
a) Water
b) Oxygen
c) Nitrogen
d) Carbon

20) A depleting source of energy is
a) Water
b) Wind
c) Sunlight
d) Fossil fuels

21) Geothermal energy is a
a) Renewable, conventional source of energy
b) Non-renewable, non-conventional source of energy
c) Renewable, non-conventional source of energy
d) Non-renewable, conventional source of energy

22) The phytotron is a device by which
a) Electrons are bombarded
b) Plants are grown in a controlled environment
c) Protons are liberated
d) Mutations are produced in plants

23) The trace gas which is produced in rice paddies and which is associated with global warming is
a) Chlorine
b) Methane
d) Hydrogen sulphide

24) Which is not a greenhouse gas?
c) Freon
d) Hydrogen

25) The greenhouse effect is related to
a) Global warming
b) Global green algae
c) Cultivation of green plants
d) Cultivation of vegetables in kitchen gardens

26) The carbon dioxidecontent in atmospheric air amounts to about

27) The Earth summit at Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) was related to
a) Soil fertility
b) Conservation of genetic resources of plants and animals
c) Survey of the land
d) None of the above

28) Stratospheric ozone depletion leads to
a) Increase in the incidence of skin cancer
b) Forest fires
c) Global warming
d) None of the above

29) Which country hosted the first world earth summit on conservation of environment?
a) India
b) Spain
c) Peru
d) Brazil

30) Which one of the following is a renewable source of energy?
a) Petroleum
b) Coal
c) Nuclear fuel
d) Trees

31) Which of the following is a non-conventional source of energy?
a) Tidal energy
b) Wind energy
c) Solar energy
d) All of these

32) An inexhaustible but limited source of energy is
a) Nuclear fuels
b) Products of lakes
c) Products of oceans
d) Fossil fuels

33) Petroleum is
a) A non-renewable resource
b) A renewable resource
c) A synthetic product
d) An inconvenient source

34) Which of the following is a non-renewable resource?
a) Minerals
b) Water
c) Forests
d) Solar energy

35) The ozone layer is disturbed by
a) Supersonic jets
b) A large number of automobiles
c) A large number of factories
d) None of the above

36) L.P.G. cooking gas is a
a) Low pressure gas
b) Biogas
c) Fossil fuel
d) Low price gas

37) The "green house effect" is enhanced in the environment by the gas
b) CO
c) Fluorocarbon
d) Methane

38) Which one of the following gases can deplete the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere?
a) Sulphur dioxide
b) Methane
c) Carbon monoxide
d) Ammonia

39) The heating of earth’s surface is due to
a) Air pollution
b) Water
c) Soil
d) All of these

40) A layer of ozone is present in the
a) Mesosphere
b) Troposphere
c) Thermosphere
d) Stratosphere

41) Earth is protected from dangerous u.v. radiations by the
a) Oxygen layer
c) Ozone layer
d) Photochemical smog layer

42) A natural resource that has an inherent capacity to replenish is called a/an
a) Non-renewable resource
b) Renewable resource
c) Exhaustible resource
d) Inexhaustible resource

43) Which of the following resources is going to be exhausted by the end of this century?
a) Tin
b) Gold
c) Lead
d) All of the above

44) For the production of biogas, the biogas plant requires
a) Agriculture waste
b) Cattle dung
c) Kerosene
d) Firewood

45) An inexhaustible non-conventional source of energy is
a) Tidal energy
b) Solar radiation
c) Wind power
d) All of these

46) Minerals, metals and fossil fuels are
a) Renewable resources
b) Biodegradable resources
c) Non-renewable resources
d) Renewable as well as nonrenewable resources

47) Which one of the following is the most non-renewable source?
a) Water
b) Wild life
c) Coal and minerals
d) Forests

48) Which of the following is a renewable resource?
a) Soil
b) Water
c) Forests and wild life
d) All of the above

49) A renewable source is
a) Wildlife species
b) Agriculture products
c) Trees
d) Both B and C

50) Both power and manure are provided by
a) Biogas plants
b) Thermal plants
c) Nuclear plants
d) Hydroelectric plants

51) Excess atmospheric increases the green house effect as
a) Reduce cloud formation
b) Precipitates dust
c) Reduces atmospheric pressure
d) Is opaque to infrared rays

52) reenhouse gases are ,
, CFC,
halons (bromine). These are

a) Transparent to emissions from earth for passage into space
b) Absorbers of long wave radiations like infrared emitted from the earth’s surface
c) Transparent to solar infrared radiation on to the earth
d) Absorbers of solar radiations for the warming of the atmosphere

53) Where is NEERI (National Environmental Engineering Research Institute)

a) Cochin
b) Shimla
c) Nagpur
d) Bangalore

54) A biogeochemical cycle without an atmospheric component is
a) Carbon
b) Phosphorus
c) Nitrogen
d) Sulphur

55) Which is most effective in warming the atmosphere?
a) CFCs
b) Methane
d) Nitrogen oxides

56) The source of methane in the air is
a) Marshes
b) Paddy fields
c) Cattle and other herbivores
d) All of the above

57) The carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere has increased in the planet over
150 years from

a) 0.2 to 0.3 PPM
b) 0.027 to 0.034 PPM
c) 20-35 PPM
d) 270-340 PPM

58) The rise of atmospheric temperature because of a high concentration of

is known as

a) Pollution
b) the greenhouse effect
c) Ecotone
d) Biomagnification

59) The lithosphere is a reservoir of
c) Phosphorus
d) Carbon

60) Of the total fresh water, ground water constitutes
a) 44.2%
b) 10%
c) 22.4%
d) 90%

61) The percentage of fresh water in the hydrosphere is
a) 33%
b) 30%
c) 13%
d) 3%

62) The percentage of fresh water found in lakes, ponds, swamps, streams
and rivers is

a) 0.36%
b) 7.7%
c) 22.4%
d) 77.2%

63) Which of the following countries has the maximum energy consumption?
a) U.K.
b) Japan
c) United States of America
d) China

64) The peak concentration of ozone in the stratosphere (ozonosphere)
Iies at a height of

a) 50 km
b) 40 km
c) 25 km
d) 10 km

65) Guano is the major source of
a) Sulphur
b) Nitrogen
c) Phosphorus
d) Zinc

66) The stratosphere is characterized by
a) a rise in temperature with height
b) a fall in temperature
c) a lack of water vapour and dust particles
d) Both A and C

67) Underground water is a/an
a) Renewable resource
b) International resource
c) Nonrenewable resource
d) Mixed resource

68) The greenhouse effect with respect to the global climate refers

a) the cooling of the earth
b) the warming of the earth
c) Increased rainfall and greenery
d) Desertification

69) NEERI is
a) National Environmental Engineering Research Institute
b) National Ecological and Environment Research Institute
c) National Eugenics and Ecological Research Institute
d) National Ethological and Ecological Research Institute

70) The region of the earth comprising water forms the
a) Hydrosphere
b) Lithosphere
c) Biosphere
d) None of the above

71) The organisms which live at the bottom of the lake are called
a) Phytoplankton
b) Zooplankton
c) Nekton
d) Benthos

72) Protection from damage due to oxygen produced by the nitrogenase enzyme
is by

a) Haemoglobin
b) Leghaemoglobin
c) Ceruloplasmin
d) Myoglobin

73) Which of the following is a non-renewable resource?
a) Wild life
b) Water
c) Coal deposits
d) Forests

74) Of the following sources of energy which one is non conventional?
a) Coal
b) Petroleum
c) wood
d) Electricity from nuclear power plants

75) Among the following which is the best source of renewable energy?
a) Trees
b) Cattle
c) Petroleum
d) Coal

76) Biodegradable pollutants are the
a) Domestic wastes that can be rapidly decomposed under natural conditions
b) Industrial wastes that can be rapidly decomposed under natural conditions
c) Industrial wastes that can be decomposed under artificial conditions
d) none of the above

77) To break the tympanum and cause permanent hearing loss, the magnitude of noise pollution required is
a) 110 dB
b) 50 dB
c) 4000-50000 hz
d) 90 dB

78) Which of the following pollutants increases the hardness of water?
b) DDT
c) Pb
d) Cu

79) Ionizing radiations are more dangerous to
a) Highly specialized cells
b) Cells in which food is stored
c) Mature stable cells
d) Actively dividing cells

80) It is said that theTaj is being destroyed due to
a) Food in Yamuna river
b) The decomposition of marble as a result of high temperature
c) The air pollutant released from the oil refinery at Mathura
d) All the above

81) The component of a living cell which is affected by the pollutant
is the

a) Nucleus
b) All cell membrane systems
c) Cell wall
d) None of these

82) What will happen if our water resources continue to be polluted
by industrial wastes?

a) Sufficient food will not be available to water organism
b) there will not be enough oxygen for water organisms
c) the BOD of water will decrease
d) Drinking water will not be available

83) An example of negative pollution is
a) Desertification
b) Soil erosion
c) Both the above
d) None of the above

84) IRRI proposed one of the following for the prevention of fertilizer
pollution in agriculture:

a) Trickling filter methods
b) Mudball technique
c) Both (a) and (b)
d) None

85) Environment Day is

86) Nutrients are required for the proper growth of producers in an aquatic environment.
Excess nutrients will cause

a) overgrowth of producers
b) depletion of oxygen
c) decrease in the number of nektons
d) all the above

87) One of the following is known as the gas-chamber of India:
a) Chembur
b) Bandra
c) Juhi
d) Pawai

88) An increase in the concentration of one of the following immediately affects
human beings because it affects the oxygen-carrying capacity of haemoglobin:


89) Gross primary productivity is the
a) Rate at which organic molecules are formed in an autotroph
b) Rate at which molecules are used up by an autotroph
c) Storage of organic molecules in the body of an autotroph
d) Rate at which organic molecule are transferred to the next higher trophic level

90) Which of the following are non-degradable pollutants?
a) Mercuric salts
b) Long chain phenolics
c) DDT
d) All of the above

91) A pollutant is any substance, chemical or other factor that changes
a) The natural geochemical cycles
b) The natural balance of our environment
c) The natural flora of our environment
d) The natural wild life of our region

92) In big cities automobiles are responsible for … % of air pollution
a) 50%
b) 70%
c) 80%
d) 100%

93) An important source of aerosol in the upper atmosphere is
a) Sea
b) Air
c) Jet aeroplane emission
d) Soil

94) In a small town, the pasture is contaminated with airborne fluorides.
The grazing animals of that area will suffer from

a) Dental disease
b) Goitre disease
c) Thyroid disease
d) Beri-beri

95) The most polluted city of India is
a) Bombay
b) Calcutta
c) Delhi
d) Madras

96) Activated sludge is associated with waste management by
a) Chemical treatment
b) Mechanical means
c) Biological treatment
d) Nuclear means

97) Which of the following is the largest source of formaldehyde vapour
pollution in a room?

a) Utensils
b) Furniture
c) Cooking range
d) Books

98) One of the following is not a pollutant:

99) EBR (Effective biological resistance) is associated with
a) High temperature
b) Low temperature
c) Radiation
d) Pollution

100) DDT is considered harmful because
a) It is an organochlorine compound
b) It is a pesticide
c) It is nonbiodegradable
d) It is easily degradable


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