Ecology & Environment MCQs Part II

1) Endemic organisms are those which
a) grow near oceans
b) grow in desert
c) are restricted to a particular geographical area
d) are grown through genetic engineering

2) Biotic potential refers to the
a) Increase of population under optimum conditions
b) Increase of population under given conditions
c) Increase of population under natural conditions
d) Increase of population under climatic conditions

3) The association of animals where both partners are benefited will be
a) ammensalism
b) commensalism
c) colonial
d) mutualism

4) An increase in the percentage of fauna and decrease in flora may be dangerous because it exchanges the
b) percentage of radioactive fallout
d) percentage of diseases

5) Pick up the correct statement:
a) Ammensalism is a relationship with benefit to both partners
b) Commensalism is a relationship of organisms where both are not benefited
c) Symbiosis is an interaction where neither are benefited
d) Mutualism is an interaction of organisms where neither can survive in the absence of the other

6) In ecological succession from the pioneer to the climax community, the biomass will
a) Increase
b) First increase, then decrease
c) Decrease
d) Not be affected

7) In a relationship, if the strong partner is benefited and the weak partner is damaged, it is known as
a) amensalism
b) symbiosis
c) commensalism
d) allotropy

8) The first plants to reappear in a badly burnt forest area will most probably be
a) Mosses
b) Liverworts
c) Ferns
d) Grasses

9) The plants and animals living in a particular biome constitute its
a) Population
b) community
c) Flora and fauna
d) None above

10) During parasitic life an animal is bound to lose
a) All the sense organs
b) Most of the nervous system
c) Its complete gut system
d) Most of the excretory system

11) One or two species in an ecosystem which determine the functioning of the ecosystem as a whole are called
a) Ecological dominants
b) Species abundance
c) Bio diversity
d) Pioneer community

12) Which of the following is in the right order regarding the food chain of an ecosystem?
a) Consumer-producer-decomposer
b) Producer-consumer-decomposer
c) Producer-consumer-decomposer
d) Decomposer-consumer-producer

13) Green plants form or constitute the
a) Complete food chain
b) First trophic level
c) Second trophic level
d) Third trophic level

14) Maximum solar energy can be trapped by
a) Growing algae in large tanks
b) Growing grasses
c) More cultivation of crop plants
d) Planting trees

15) The pelagic organisms that cannot withstand wave action are called
a) Plankton
b) Neuston
c) Benthos
d) Nekton

16) A big fish eats a small fish which eats water fleas which in turn eat phytoplankton. The water fleas form
a) Producers
b) Top consumers in this food chain
c) Secondary consumers
d) Primary consumers

17) Biological equilibrium is an equilibrium among the
a) Decomposers and producers
b) Producers and consumers
c) Producers, consumers and decomposers
d) Producers

18) In a forest ecosystem green plants are
a) Decomposers
b) Primary consumers
c) Primary producers
d) Consumers

19) An ecosystem is a complex interacting system of
a) Populations
b) Individuals
c) Communities and their soil conditions
d) Communities and their physical environment

20) The dental formula for a horse is
a) 2/1,0/0,3/2,3/3
b) 3/3,1/1,4/4, 3/3
c) 2/2,1/1,2/2,3/3
d) 1/0,0/0,0/0,3/3

21) Competition between individuals of a population is
a) Intraspecific
b) Interspecific
c) Internecine
d) Local

22) Chemicals used for transmitting messages to members of same species are
a) Allochemics
b) Kairomones
c) Auxins
d) Pheromones

23) The waggle dance of the Honey Bee is an example of
a) Courtship
b) Threatening adversaries
c) Communication about a feeding site
d) Communication of imminent danger

24) Territory is defended against
a) Any intruder
b) Predators
c) Intruders of the same species
d) Intruder of a species having the same feeding habits

25) An animal will defend its
a) Territory
b) Home range
c) Feeding area
d) Both A and B

26) The boundaries of an animal’s territory is marked by
a) Defaecation
b) Pheromones present in excreta
c) Excreta
d) Urination

27) Which one is larger?
a) Territory
b) Defended area
c) Home range
d) Nesting and nursing area

28) An example of an animal leading a solitary life is
a) Deer
b) Seal
c) Fox
d) Spider

29) Species ecology is
a) Autecology
b) Synecology
c) Community ecology
d) Palaeoecology

30) An animal which lives in flocks is
a) Deer
b) Monkey
c) Elephant
d) Parrot

31) An animal found in herds is
a) Deer
b) Swan
c) Parrot
d) Monkey

32) The presence of a territorial male is announced during the breeding season by
a) Tactile signals
b) Pheromones
c) Auditory signal
d) Visual signals

33) A monogamous animal is
a) Seal
b) Deer
c) Swan
d) Hamster

34) A polygamous animal is
a) Swan
b) Deer
c) Fox
d) Wolf

35) The occurrence of two forms of individuals in the same species is known as
a) Differentiation
b) Dimorphism
c) Monoecious
d) Polymorphism

36) The intraspecific interaction in which one or few members of a species sacrifice their benefits for the welfare of the species is called
a) Territorial behavior
b) Leadership behavior
c) Altruism
d) Dominance heirarchy

37) In a species competition between the individuals is always for
a) Food
b) Shelter
c) a mate
d) All of these

38) Which of the following is a unique feature of the human population?
a) Wide range of distribution on earth
b) Adapted to almost all climatic conditions
c) Reproductively active in all seasons
d) All of these

39) Which of the following is a subordinate population?
a) Deme
b) Community
c) Species
d) Both B and C

40) Which of the following is a sterile offspring produced by interspecific breeding?
a) Mule
b) Liger
c) Tigon
d) Ligon

41) Liger is a
a) Natural hybrid between a lion and a tigress
b) Natural hybrid between a tiger and a lioness
c) Fertile hybrid between a captive lion and a tigress
d) Fertile hybrid between a captive tiger and a lioness

42) Physalia shows
a) Polymorphism
b) Dimorphism
c) Trimorphism
d) Metamerism

43) Family formation is a common feature in
a) All animals
b) Majority of animals
c) Almost all animals
d) A few animals

44) The most thinly populated country of the world is
a) Australia
b) Austria
c) Maldives
d) Canada

45) Emigration is
a) Going out of some individuals to return after some time
b) Temporary inward movement of some individuals
c) Permanent outward movement of some individuals from a population
d) Permanent inward movement of some individuals into a population

46) A permanent loss from a population can be due to
a) Immigration
b) Emigration
c) Migration
d) All the above

47) In aquatic organisms, population density is expressed in the following space units:
a) Cubic meter/cubic centimeter
b) Metre
c) Kilometer
d) Square metre/Square metre

48) All the individuals of a species which occur in a particular area constitute the
a) Flora
b) Fauna
c) Population
d) Flora and fauna

49) Synecology is study of inter-relationship between the environment and the
a) Individual plant
b) APopulation
c) Community
d) Individual animal

50) Ecology (Oekologic) was coined by
a) Linnaeus
b) Haeckel
c) Harvey
d) Odum/Lamarck

51) The term of ecology was actually coined by
a) Aristotle
b) Reiter
c) Linnaeus
d) Odum

52) Which can counteract the biotic potential?
a) Limitation of food
b) Competition from other organisms
c) Availability of lower trophic level organisms
d) None of the above

53) Competition is most severe between two
a) Closely related species growing in different niches
b) Closely related species growing in the same habitat
c) Distantly related species growing in the same habitat
d) Distantly related species growing in different niches

54) The sum total of all populations of the same kind of organisms constitute the
a) Colony
b) Genus
c) Community
d) Species

55) Which is correct about human races?
a) All races can interbreed but most will produce infertile young ones
b) All races can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
c) Different races cannot interbreed
d) Some human races can interbreed

56) The abundance of a species population within its habitat is called
a) Absolute density
b) Regional density
c) Relative density
d) Niche density

57) Pheromones secreted by certain exocrine skin glands affect
a) Genitalia
b) Breast
c) Skin colour
d) Mutual behaviour of members of a species

58) A hinny is derived from
a) A male donkey and mare
b) A stallion and a female donkey
c) A lion and a tigress
d) A tiger and a lioness

59) Worker termites are
a) Larvae
b) Adolescent
c) Adult male
d) Adult female

60) A mule is produced by
a) A male donkey and a mare
b) A stallion and a female donkey
c) A polar bear and an Alaskan brown bear
d) A tiger and a lioness

61) Which one of the following sequences is in the order of increasing organisational complexity?
a) Population, variety, community and ecosystem
b) Population, community, species and ecosystem
c) Population, ecosystem, species, variety and species
d) Population, species, community and Ecosystem

62) Human beings are constituents of the
a) Climate
b) Environment
c) Biosphere
d) Ecosystem

63) Which one can live in isolation?
a) An organism
b) A cell
c) Both A and B
d) Neither A nor B

64) The force operating in an ecosystem which opposes the unchecked growth of a population is
a) Environmental resistance
b) Biotic control
c) Fecundity
d) Mortality

65) Which of the following pair increases the population/
a) Emigration and natality
b) Mortality and emigration
c) Natality and immigration
d) Immigration and mortality

66) Biotic potential is
a) The ability to produce at maximum rate when all the environmental conditions are optimum
b) The sum total of all the conditions that exist around an organism
c) The maximum resources that can be provided
d) The maximum number of a population that can be supported in that habitat

67) A species which is capable of showing subvarieties, races or demes is
a) A monotype
b) Allopatric
c) Polytypic
d) All the above

68) The interbreeding individuals of a species showing continuous distribution are
a) Endemic
b) A deme
c) A cline
d) Ecotones

69) The most thinly populated country in the world, which has many endemic species:
a) France
b) Japan
c) Australia
d) China

70) Which of the following factors are responsible for controlling the population of human beings?
a) Socio-economic factors
b) Geographical factors
c) Demographic factors
d) All the above factors

71) Polar, sub polar and high altitude regions are mostly uninhabitable because
a) The temperature is very high
b) They have fast soil erosion
c) The temperature is very low
d) The rainfall is heavy

72) For the better survival of the human Indian population, which is the most important step?
a) Afforestation
b) Reduction in population density
c) Conservation of wild life, including tribals in the efforts
d) Both A and B

73) In a specific area, there are Negros, Aryans, and Mongolians living. They constitute a
a) Deme
b) Monospecific population
c) Polyspecific population
d) Heterogenous population

74) About fifteen different species of Galapagos finches were each adapted to eating different food. This is an example of
a) Gene flow
b) Adaptive radiation
c) Sympatric speciation
d) All the above

75) The environmental factors which influence the population are
a) Biotic
b) Abiotic
c) Both abiotic and biotic
d) None

77) A local population of organisms of one species that actively interbreed with one another and share a distinct gene pool is called a
a) deme
b) polytypic
c) cline
d) hybrid

78) Which of the following is necessary for natural selection?
a) Variation
b) Differential reproduction
c) Inheritance of differences
d) All the above

79) The biological definition of a species will be
a) Anatomical and developmental differences between two groups of organisms
b) Reproductive isolation of two groups of organisms
c) The geographic distribution of two groups of organisms
d) Differences in the adaptations of two groups of organisms

80) Wild duck and pintail duck produce fertile
offspring only in captivity but seldom do so in their natural habitats because of

a) Postreproductive isolation
b) Mechanical isolation
c) Genetic drift
d) Ethological isolation

81) Exponential growth in a given population of a microorganism is limited

a) Competition for food
b) Accumulation of waste matter
c) Both above
d) None above

82) The least populated Indian state is
a) Madhya Pradesh
b) Arunachal Pradesh
c) Bihar
d) Haryana

83) Recently the human population has grown almost exponentially to about 6 billion because of
a) The recent agricultural revolution
b) The industrial revolution
c) Major scientific and medical advances reducing the mortality rate
d) All the above

84) When a population is undergoing exponential growth it
a) Remains the same size each year
b) Decreases by the same amount each year
c) Increases by a large amount each year
d) None above

85) The force opposing the ability to reproduce at a given rate in any population

a) Mortality
b) Fecundity
c) Environmental resistance
d) Biotic control

86) The initial community of the area which is replaced in time by a sequence of succeeding communities is the
a) Final stage
b) Climax
c) Pioneer stage
d) None above

87) Earthworm is known to exhibit
a) Positive phototaxis
b) Negative phototaxis
c) Phototropitaxis
d) None of the above

88) In commensalism
a) The population of the commensal and the host remain unaffected
b) The population of the commensal increases while that of the host remains unaffected
c) The population of commensal and host increases
d) The population of the commensal increases while the population of the host gradually decreases

89) A flagellate protozoan living in the gut of termites is a case of
a) Symbiosis
b) Parasitism
c) Amensalism
d) Commensalism

90) The nutritional groups are called
a) Food web
b) Trophic levels
c) Ecotone
d) Producers

91) The natural process by which different groups of communities colonize the same area over a period of time in a definite sequence is called
a) Adaptation
b) Variation
c) Succession
d) Biological rhythm

92) No two different species can occupy the same niche. This principle was given by
a) Elton
b) Lindeman
c) Shelford
d) Gause

93) Behavioural activities that are correlated with one day-cycle under fairly constant conditions are called
a) Biological clock
b) Circadian rhythms
c) Lunar periodicities
d) Seasonal cycles

94) Velamen layer is found in the roots of
a) Epiphytes
b) Saprophytes
c) Parasites
d) None of the above

95) An endoparasite generally tends to lose its
a) Feeding organ
b) Osmoregulatory organ
c) Gonads
d) Chemotaxis

96) refers

a) Parasites inducing their hosts to form antibodies
b) Parasites making their hosts form fibrous capsules round them
c) changeA cbrought about by the parasite on the host resulting in sexual impotency
d) None of the above

97) Interspecific competition between plants may manifest itself by chemical
aggression called

a) Parasitism
b) Predation
c) Allelopathy
d) Ecological sere

98) Ecological succession in a hydrosere includes
a) Increase in species diversity
b) Increase in structural complexity
c) Increase in organic matter
d) All the above

99) In any lithosere the pioneer community is
a) Blue green algae
b) Foliose lichens
c) Mosses
d) Crustose lichens

100) The association between ants and the petiole of certain plants is called
a) Interactions
b) Mutualism
c) Myrmecophily
d) None of the above


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