Cell & Cell Division Part VII

1) The period of active mitosis varies from
a) Several days
b) 10 minutes to few hours
c) Several weeks
d) Few seconds

2) Where should you look for somatic division or active mitosis in plants?
In the cells of the

a) Pith and node
b) Cortex
c) Internode
d) Root and shoot apex

3) In pollen grains, mitosis occurs in
a) Generative cells
b) Vegetative cells
c) Matured cells
d) All the cells

4) Organisms produced after mitosis are
a) All identical
b) Some identical
c) Non-identical
d) None of the above

5) The significance of mitosis is that it produces
a) Recombinants
b) Cells of identical genotype
c) Cells with altered chromosomes
d) Cells with equal number of nuclei

6) The centromere of a chromosome divides into two during
a) Early prophase
b) Late-prophase
c) Metaphase
d) Anaphase

7) The attachment of a chromosome to the spindle fibre is brought about by the
a) Chromomere
b) Centromere
c) Satellite region
d) Centriole

8) In mitotic cell division the division of the centromere and the division of
chromatids occurs between

a) Prophase and metaphase
b) Metaphase and anaphase
c) Anaphase and telophase
d) Telophase and interphase

9) Chromosomes move towards the pole of mitotic spindle at
a) Metaphase
b) Anaphase-A
c) Late metaphase
d) Pro-telophase

10) In mitosis, the number of chromatids in each chromosome at anaphase and
telophase are

a) One
b) Two
c) Three
d) Four

11) At anaphase
a) Nuclear division occurs
b) Division of cytoplasm occurs
c) Replication of DNA occurs
d) Division of the centromere occurs

12) In which phase of mitosis do the chromatids of a chromosome separate from each

a) Anaphase
b) Telophase
c) Metaphase
d) Prophase

13) The nuclear membrane disappears completely during
a) Interphase
b) Metaphase
c) Early metaphase
d) Late prophase

14) Anastral mitosis is characteristic of
a) All living organisms
b) Higher plants
c) Higher animals
d) Lower animals

15) A stage of mitosis in which chromosomes get arranged in the form of an equatorial
plate in the centre of a dividing cell is called

a) Prophase
b) Metaphase
c) Anaphase
d) Telophase

16) The cellular structure which always disappears during mitosis is
a) Nucleolus
b) Plasma membrane
c) Plastid
d) None of these

17) The nuclear membrane disappears in
a) Metaphase
b) Early prophase
c) Late prophase
d) Anaphase

18) Karyokinesis means division of
a) Cytoplasm into two
b) Nucleus into two
c) Protoplasm into two
d) None of these

19) Cytokinesis in plant cells occurs by
a) Separation of the cytoplasm from the periphery to the central region
b) Separation of the cytoplasm starting from the centre of the cell in outward direction
c) Separation of the cytoplasm throughout the equatorial plane simultaneously
d) Furrowing of cytoplasm from the two sides at right angles to the plane of spindles

20) Temporary suppression of mitotic activity could be achieved by
a) UV-radiation or darkness
b) Hormonal treatment
c) Colchicine treatment
d) Reducing food supply

21) Which of the following effects is caused by colchicine?
a) Duplication of DNA
b) Duplication of chromosome
c) Inhibits the formation of spindle fibers
d) Inhibition of cell plate formation

22) What is C-mitosis?
a) The mitosis in collenchyma
b) Abnormal mitosis occurring in colchicine treated cells
c) A mitosis in which the spindle is circular
d) All the above

23) Division of the chromosomes without the division of the nucleus is termed
a) amitosis
b) Mitosis
c) Endomitosis
d) Karyokinesis

24) Fission usually occurs in
a) Eukaryotic cells
b) Prokaryotic cells
c) Meristematic cells
d) Spore mother cells

25) The longest phase in mitosis is
a) Prophase
b) Metaphase
c) Anaphase
d) Telophase

26) When DNA and chromosomes replicate without the division of the nucleus such
a change is known as

a) Endoploidy
b) Allopolyploidy
c) Linkage
d) Crossing over

27) How many times must mitotic division occur in a cell to form 1024 cells?
a) 10
b) 20
c) 40
d) 64

28) How many mitotic divisions must occur in a root tip cell to form 128

a) 128
b) 127
c) 64
d) 32

29) What plant material is best suited for studying mitosis in the classroom?
a) Anthers
b) Root tips
c) Pieces of bark
d) Shoot apex

30) The stage of mitosis during which the nucleolus disappears and chromosomes
appear is known as

a) Interphase
b) Metaphase
c) Anphase
d) Prophase

31) How many times will mitotic division take place to produce 512 cells from
a single parent cell?

a) 9
b) 256
c) 158
d) 510

32) The process of mitosis is divided into 4 phases. Identify the correct order
in which these phases appear in mitosis

a) Anaphase, metaphase, telophase and prophase
b) Telophase, anaphase, metaphase and prophase
c) Metaphase, prophase, anaphase and telophase
d) Prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase

33) Meiotic divisions in an angiospermous plant can be observed by examining
cells of

a) The apical meristem of the stem
b) The apical dividing cells in the root tip
c) Cell of the vascular cambium when they are dividing
d) Pollen mother cells when they are undergoing divisions in the anther

34) When a cell with 40 chromosomes undergoes meiosis, each of the four resulting
cells has

a) 20 chromosomes
b) 40 chromosomes
c) 80 chromosomes
d) 10 chromosomes

35) Which is the longest stage of meiotic divisions?
a) Prophase I
b) Metaphase I
c) Anaphase I
d) Telophase I

36) Haploid number of chromosomes are found in the cells of the
a) Root tips
b) Leaf tips
c) Anther
d) Bulbil

37) Which one of the following statements is not true for meiosis?
a) It occurs in reproductive tissues only
b) Chromosomes undergo pairing in early prophase I
c) Chromosomes do not exchange parts
d) Centromeres do not divide during anaphase

38) During synapsis the number of threads (chromonemata) in each chromosome

a) 2
b) 4
c) 8
d) Many

39) Synaptonemal complex is observed during
a) Diplotene
b) Leptotene
c) Zygotene
d) Pachytene

40) Distribution of genetic material occurs from generation to generation and
permits great genetic diversity by frequent reorganization of genetic complement.
This occurs during

a) Mitosis
b) Meiosis
c) Organogenesis
d) Metamorphosis

41) All gametes are haploid. Which is true about this statement?
a) It is a fact for all living organisms
b) It is a theory
c) It is a generalised statement
d) It is a vague statement

42) In meiosis chiasma formation occurs at
a) Pachytene stage
b) Zygotene stage
c) Diplotene stage
d) Diakinesis stage

43) The correct sequence of stages in prophase I of meiosis is
a) Leptotene, pachytene, zygotene, diakinesis, diplotene
b) Leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene, diakinesis
c) Zygotene, leptotene, pachytene, diakinesis, diplotene
d) Diplotene, diakinesis, pachytene, zygotene, leptotene

44) Synapsis is characteristic of
a) Leptotene
b) Zygotene
c) Pachytene
d) Diplotene

45) During meiosis, crossing over (exchange of chromosome segments) occurs at
a) Diplotene
b) Leptotene
c) Pachytene
d) Diakinesis

46) The segment of DNA which participates in crossing over is known as
a) Muton
b) Cistron
c) Recon
d) Replicon

47) Synapsis refers to the pairing of
a) Homologous chromosomes
b) Non-homologous chromosomes
c) Acentric chromosomes
d) Analogous chromosomes

48) During meiosis, the reduction of the chromosome number into half takes place in which
of the following stages?

a) Early Metaphase I
b) Anaphase I
c) Metaphase II
d) Telophase I

49) Zygotic meiosis takes place in
a) Wolffia
b) Pteris
c) Pinus
d) Chlamydomonas

50) The number of chromosome groups at the equatorial plate in metaphase I
of meiosis in a plant with 2n = 50 will be

a) 50
b) 25
c) 30
d) 100

51) Crossing over is
a) Exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids of non-homologous chromosomes
b) Exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes
c) Exchange of genetic material between sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes
d) Exchange of genetic material between sister chromatids of non-homologous chromosomes

52) I cycle of division in meiosis is reductional and II is equational. Under
what conditions is I cycle not reductional?

a) Separation of homologous chromosomes does not occur in I cycle
b) Meiosis is abnormal
c) Crossing over does not occur in I cycle
d) Chromosomes remain at equator at I cycle

53) Meiosis is completed in two cycles called I and II
a) I is nuclear and II somatic division
b) I is equational and II nuclear
c) I is reductional and II cell division
d) I is reductional and II mitotic

54) Meiosis involves
a) One division of nucleus and one division of chromosomes
b) Two divisions of nucleus and one division of chromosomes
c) One division of nucleus and two divisions of chromosomes
d) Two divisions of nucleus and two divisions of chromosomes

55) Division (separation) of chromatids occurs during
a) Mitosis
b) Meiosis
c) Both mitosis and meiosis
d) Amitosis

56) DNA is already duplicated in
a) Mitosis
b) Meiosis
c) Meiosis and mitosis
d) Meiosis II and mitosis

57) The process of synapsis occurs in
a) Amitosis
b) Meiosis
c) Mitosis
d) Endomitosis

58) The bivalent of prophase I is an association of
a) Two chromatids attached to one centromere
b) Two chromatids attached to two centromeres
c) Four chromatids attached to two centromeres
d) Four chromatids attached to four centromeres

59) The chromosome at pachytene appears to be
a) Clear bivalents
b) Clear tetravalents
c) Unclear monovalents
d) Unclear bivalents

60) Synaptonemal complex is a structure of
a) Cytokinesis
b) Terminalization
c) Chromosomal disjunction
d) Chromosomal pairing (synapsis and bivalents)

61) At which of the following stages do the chromosomes exhibit a beaded appearance?
a) Leptotene
b) Prophase II
c) Diplotene
d) Metaphase

62) The two nuclei which are formed after the completion of the first meiotic cycle

a) Genetically similar
b) Genetically dissimilar
c) May be similar or dissimilar
d) Rarely dissimilar

63) Homologous chromosomes are
a) From different mating parents
b) From the same parent
c) Form pairs during mitosis
d) Exhibit cross over at anaphase

64) Which type of chromosomes segregate when a cell undergoes meiosis?
a) Homologous chromosomes
b) Non homologous
d) Centric and accentric chromosomes

65) The significance of meiosis is
a) Production of identical cells
b) Maintains constancy of chromosomes
c) Genetic recombination
d) Production of gametes

66) During the study of meiosis in Neurospora 2a, 4a, 2a arrangement of ascospores
was observed. This means that

a) Both the first division and second division were equational
b) First division was reductional and second equational
c) First division was equational and second reductional
d) First and second divisions both were reductional

67) The products of meiosis are four nuclei which are not genetically identical
because of

a) Crossing over
b) Random assortment of maternal and paternal chromosomes
c) Both A and B
d) Nuclear division

68) The four nuclei produced by reduction division differ among themselves in
a) Number of chromosomes
b) Size of chromosomes
c) Number of genes
d) Quality of genes

69) How many chromosomes would be present in each of the cell of the protein
tetrad, if the leaf tip cells of a plant species had six chromosomes?

a) 3
b) 6
c) 12
d) 24

70) An organism has 22 pairs of chromosomes. The number of chromosomes after
first meiotic division should be

a) 11
b) 22
c) 22
d) 88

71) The number of chromosome pairs at diakinesis in a meiocyte is 12. The chromosome
number expected in each nucleus after first and second cycle of division is

a) 12 and 6
b) 12 and 12
c) 6 and 12
d) 24 and 12

72) The process that ensures the same chromosome mumber is maintained through
generations is

a) Meiosis
b) Mitosis
c) Endomitosis
d) Amitosis

73) Meiosis is a type of cell division in which
a) The chromosomes maintain their original number
b) The chromosome number is reduced to half
c) The chromosome number is doubled
d) The chromosome number is reduced to one fourth

74) Daughter cells formed as a result of meiosis are not similar to the
parent cell because

a) Crossing over occurs and the number of chromosomes become half
b) Prophase is large
c) There are two divisions
d) Synapsis occurs

75) The exchange of a chromosome segment between maternal and paternal chromatids
during meiosis is called

a) Dominance
b) Telophase
c) Linkage
d) Crossing over

76) The change of chromosomal parts between non-homologous pairs of chromosomes
is known as

a) Crossing over
b) Translocation
c) Inversion
d) Deletion

77) By which of the following processes can linked genes be separated?
a) Polyploidy
b) Gene mutation
c) Crossing over
d) Segregation

78) In angiosperms how many microspore mother cells are required to produce
100 pollen grains?

a) 25
b) 50
c) 75
d) 100

79) A dyad is
a) A pair of sister chromatids
b) A pair of non-sister chromatids
c) A pair of homologous choromosomes
d) A pair of non-homologous chromosomes

80) During which of the following stages do chromosomes exhibit minimum coiling?
a) Interphase
b) Prophase
c) Metaphase
d) Anaphase

81) The cell which undergoes reduction division is called
a) Androcyte
b) Meiocyte
c) Zygote
d) Zoospore

82) Among the following which one is the longest period in the prophase of meiosis?
a) Leptotene
b) Pachytene
c) Diplotene
d) Zygotene

83) Crossing over involves
a) Duplication of chromosomes
b) Deletion of chromosomes
c) Exchange of genetic material
d) Addition of chromosomes

84) A single Drosophila chromosome possesses a gene for red eyes and a gene
for straight wings. These genes may be separated as a result of the process

a) Crossing over
b) Disjunction
c) Polyploidy
d) Hybridization

85) If the distance between genes on a chromosome is greater, then the linkage
strength is

a) More
b) Less
c) Unaffected
d) More in somatic cells

86) When two genes are very closely situated on a chromosome in the neighbourhood
of each other, frequency of crossing over is

a) 100%
b) 75%
c) 50%
d) 0%

87) Crossing over takes place between
a) Sister chromatids
b) Non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes
c) Analogous
d) DNA and RNA

88) Which of the following concepts about the mechanism of crossing
over is most generally accepted?

a) Copy choice model
b) Meselson’s breakage-reunion theory
c) Holliday and Whitehouse model
d) Zinder and Lederberg’s model

89) How many chromatids are present in a pachytene chromosome?
a) 2
b) 3
c) 4
d) 8

90) The cross over points between a pair of homologous chromosomes are called
a) Chromonemata
b) Monohybrid cross
c) Chiasmata
d) Chi-square

91) At what stage the is crossing-over most easily observable or becomes optically
apparent as chiasmata?

a) Meiosis II or meiotic prophase
b) Diakinesis
c) Diplotene
d) Pachytene

92) The importance of crossing over during meiosis is
a) No importance
b) Genetic recombination
c) That it produces cytoplasmic reorganization
d) That it provides nutrition

93) The evidence that crossing over occurs at the four stranded stage and not at the
two stranded stage comes from

a) 4 : 4 arrangement of ascospores in Neurospora
b) 2 : 2 : 2 : 2 arrangement of ascospores in Neurospora
c) Studies of meiosis in maize
d) Studies of linkage maps in drosophila

94) Disjunction refers to
a) The separation of homologous chromosomes at anaphase I
b) The type of chromosomal aberration in which there is loss of a part of a chromosome
c) Incompatibility in fungi and other thallophytes
d) Modification of gene action by a non-allelic gene

95) If crossing over does not occur the recombination would be due to random
segregation which occurs at

a) Anaphase I
b) Anaphase II
c) Prophase I
d) Prophase II

96) Segregation of hereditary factors is brought about by
a) Fertilization
b) Recombination
c) Disjunction
d) Gametogenesis

97) In anaphase I
a) Bivalents divide transversely
b) Bivalents move towards opposite poles
c) Tetravalents are formed
d) Chromatids separate

98) In meiosis I, the centromere
a) Divides between metaphase and anaphase
b) Divides between anaphase and interphase
c) Divides but the daughter centromeres do not separate
d) Does not divide at all

99) At what stage of meiosis is the centromere of a chromosome at the equator
and arms towards the poles of a spindle?

a) Prophase I
b) Metaphase I
c) Metaphase I
d) Anaphase I

100) At which stage do the homologous chromosomes stand in pairs with the centromere
directed toward poles and the arms on the equator?

a) Prophase
b) Metaphase II and Mitosis
c) Metaphase I
d) Prophase II


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