1. Which of the following statements is false ?
(a) ADH helps in water elimination making urine hypotonic.
(b) Protein free fluid is filtered from blood plasma into the Bowman’s capsule.
(c) Glucose is actively reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule.
(d) Henle’s loop plays an important role in concentrating the urine.
2. Normal desire for micturition is felt when the amount of urine collected in bladder is (a) 25-50 mL (b) 50-100 mL
(c) 350-400 mL (d) 700-800 mL.
3. Diuresis is the condition in which
(a) the excretory volume of urine increases
(b) the excretory volume of urine decreases
(c) the kidneys fail to excrete urine
(d) the water balance of the body is disturbed.
4. Mark the wrong match
(a) Bowman’s capsule Glomerular Alteration
(b) DCT Absorption of glucose
(c) Henle’s loop Concentration of urine
(d) PCT Absorption of Na+ and K* ions
5. Podocytes are the cells present on
(a) outer wall of Bowman’s capsule
(b) inner wall of Bowman’s capsule
(c) neck of nephron
(d) wall of glomerular capillaries.
6. Ornithine cycle involves the utilization of
(a) ammonia and oxygen
(b) carbon dioxide and ammonia
(c) carbon dioxide and glucose
(d) glucose and oxygen.
7. Hippuric acid, creatinines and ketones are added to urine through
(a) selective reabsorption
(b) glomerular filtration
(c) tubular secretion
(d) both (b) and (c).
8. Two examples in which the nitrogenous waste are excreted from body in the form of uric acid are
(a) birds and lizards
(b) frogs and bony fishes
(c) insects and bony fishes
(d) mammals and molluscs.
9. Uric acid crystals gets deposited in small joints to produce
(a) rheumatoid arthritis (b) gout
(c) osteoarthritis (d) bursitis.
10. Which of the following statements is correct?
(a) Malpighian corpuscles and glomerulus constitute the Bowman’s capsule.
(b) Renal corpuscle and glomerulus constitute Malpighian corpuscle.
(c) Bowman’s corpuscles and Malpighian tubules constitute the glomerulus.
(d) Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus together constitute renal corpuscle.
1. If Henle’s loop were absent from mammalian nephron, which one of the following is to be expected ?
(a) There will be no urine formation.
(b) There will be hardly any change in the quality and quantity of urine formed.
(c) The urine will be more concentrated.
(d) The urine will be more dilute.
2. In micturition
(a) urethra relaxes (b) ureter relaxes (c) ureter contracts (d) urethra contracts.
(DPMT 1999, 2004, Manipal 1997)
3. Which one of the following four secretions is correctly matched with its source, target and nature of action?
4. Which one of the following statements is correct with respect to salt water balance inside the body of living organisms ?
(a) When water is not available camels do not produce urine but store urea in tissues.
(b) Salmon fish excretes lot of stored salt through gell membrane when in freshwater.
(c) Paramecium discharges concentrated salt solution by contractile vacuoles.
(d) The body fluids of freshwater animals are generally hypotonic to surrounding water.
5. Glucose is mainly absorbed in
(a) P.C.T (b) D.C.T.
(c) Henle’s loop (d) nephron.
6. In the ascending limb of the loop of Henle the maximum osmotic difference that can be created by the Na-K pump is approximately
(a) 100mOsmol/L (b) 200 mOsmol/L
(c) 300 mOsmol/L (d) 400 mOsmol/L.
7. Vasopressin released from the neurohypophysis is mainly responsible for
(a) facultative reabsorption of water through Henle’s loop
(b) obligatory reabsorption of water through Bowman’s capsule
(c) facultative reabsorption of water through DCT
(d) obligatory reabsorption of water through PCT.
8. Which of the following is correct ?
(a) Water reabsorption in descending limb of loop and collecting duct occur under similar conditions.
(b) Sodium reabsorption in ascending limb of loop and collecting duct occur under similar conditions.
(c) Water reabsorption in descending limb of loop and collecting duct occur under different conditions.
(d) Water reabsorption in descending limb and sodium reabsorption in ascending limb of loop occur under similar conditions.
9. Which one of the following statements in regard to the excretion by the human kidneys is correct?
(a) Descending limb of loop of Henle is impermeable to water.
(b) Distal convoluted tubule is incapable of reabsorbing HC03″.
(c) Nearly 99 per cent of the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed by the renal tubules
(d) Ascending limb of loop of Henle is impermeable to electrolytes. (AlPMT Prelims 2010)
10. In which one of the following organisms its excretory organs are correctly stated?
(a) Humans – Kidneys, sebaceous glands and tear glands
(b) Earthworm – Pharyngeal, integumentary and septal nephridia
(c) Cockroach – Malpighian tubules and enteric caeca
(d) Frog – Kidneys, skin and buccal epithelium
(AlPMT Mains 2010)
11. Compare the statements A and B.
Statement A : When the urine moves through the descending limb, it become hypertonic and as it passes through the ascending limb of Henle’s loop it becomes hypotonic.
Statement B : The descending limb is permeable to sodium ions, while the ascending limb is impermeable to sodium ions.
(a) Statement A is correct and B is wrong
(b) Statement A is wrong and B is correct
(c) Both statements A and B are wrong
(d) Both statements A and B are correct.
12. The average quantity of urea excreted in urine by man per day is
(a) 1-5 gm (c) 1-1.5 litres
(e) 100-500 mg.
(b) 25-30 mg (d) 80 gm
13. Which one of the following correctly explains the function of a specific part of the human nephron?
(a) Podocytes : create minute spaces (slit pores) for the filtration of blood into the Bowman’s capsule
(b) Henle’s loop : most reabsorption of the major substances from the glomerular filtrate
(c) Distal convoluted tubule : reabsorption of K+ ions into the surrounding blood capillaries
(d) Afferent arteriole : carries the blood away from the glomerulus towards renal vein
(AlPMT Prelims 2011)
14. Effective filtration pressure in glomerulus is caused due to
(a) powerful pumping action of the heart
(b) secretion of adrenaline
(c) afferent arteriole is slightly larger than efferent arteriole
(d) vacuum develops in proximal convoluted tubule and sucks the blood.
15. Select the correct statement.
(a) The juxta medullary nephrons have reduced Henle’s loop.
(b) Vasa recta is well developed in cortical nephrons.
(c) The PCT and DCT are situated in the medulla of the kidney.
(d) The glomerulus encloses the Bowman’s capsule.
(e) The ascending limb of the Henle’s loop extends as the DCT.
16. Which one of the following options gives the correct categorization of six animals according to the type of nitrogenous waste they give out?
17. A fall in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) activates
(a) juxtaglomerular cells to release renin
(b) adrenal cortex to release aldosterone
(c) adrenal medulla to release adrenaline
(d) posterior pituitary to release vasopressin.
(AIPMT Mains 2012)
18. Choose the wrong statement.
(a) In ureotelic organisms, ammonia is not a product of metabolism.
(b) In mammals some amount of urea may be retained in the kidney matrix of ureotelics to maintain osmolarity.
(c) In fishes, kidneys do not play any significant role in the removal of ammonium ions.
(d) Urea and uric acid are less toxic than ammonia.
(e) Ammonia is readily soluble and can diffuse easily.
19. Which one of the following is correct for a normal human?
(a) pH of urine is around 8.
(b) On an average, 25-30 mg of urea is excreted via urine.
(c) Presence of ketone bodies in urine is an indicator of diabetes mellitus.
(d) Glycosuria can be treated with hemodialysis.
(e) Relaxation of smooth muscles of bladder and simultaneous contraction of urethral sphincter causes release of urine.
20. Fresh water bony fishes maintain water balance by
(a) excreting a hypotonic urine
(b) drinking small amount of water
(c) excreting salt across their gills
(d) excreting wastes in form of uric acid.
21. Juxtaglomerular cells secrete A when there is a fall in B ion concentration.
Choose the correct pair labelled as A and B.
(a) A : Renin B : Chloride
(b) A : Carbonic anhydrase B : Sodium
(c) A : ATPase B : Potassium
(d) A : Renin B : Sodium
22. Functional kidney of mammals is
(a) archinephros type (b) ophisthonephros type (c) pronephros type (d) metanephros type.
23. Which of the following is true for excretion in humans?
(a) Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed in PCT by simple diffusion.
(b) DCT is impermeable to water.
(c) On an average, 25-30 mg of urea is excreted out per day.
(d) Maximum reabsorption occurs in the loop of Henle.
(All MS 2013)
Assertion & Reason Questions
1. Assertion : Tubular secretion removes foreign bodies, ions and molecules from the body.
Reason : As much as 99 percent of the material in the filtrate is reabsorbed from the body because of tubular secretion.
2. Assertion : The Henle’s loop and vasa recta play a significant role in producing a concentrated urine. Reason : The counter current arrangement of Henle’s loop and vasa recta helps in this.
3. Assertion : Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) controls the
amount of water in the urine.
Reason : ADH determines the permeability of the collecting duct to water.
4. Assertion : Uricotelism is advantageous to the egg- laying land vertebrates.
Reason : Uric acid is readily soluble in water.
5. Assertion : Glomerular filtration requires expenditure of energy by kidney.
Reason : Glomerular filtration occurs because pressure in the glomerular capillaries is lower than the pressure in Bowman’s capsule.
Short Answer Type Questions
1. How do fresh water animals prevent the net gain of water and net loss of body salts?
2. What are the two important intrinsic mechanisms to autoregulate glomerular filtration rate?
3. Read the following passage and fill it with correct words/ terms.
Renin converts_______into________._______ then converts angiotensin I to_______a peptide hormone which raises blood pressure and increases the synthesis and release of aldosterone. Aldosterone causes _______ and _______ reabsorption by distal part of the tubules. This leads to an increase in blood pressure and GFR.