AIIMS AIPMT PMT JIPMER Essential – Primary Secondary Growth and Development of Plant Cells


Primary growth is the first form of growth to occur. A whole plant can be built up by primary growth, and in most monocotyledonous plants and herbaceous dicotyledons it is the only type of growth. It is a result of the activity of the apical, and sometimes intercalary meristems. The seedling undergoes primary growth to … Read more

Varieties and useful properties of tomatoes

Tomato (or tomato, as it is historically known) has many varieties. Despite the huge number of years, during which it is grown all around the world, there is still no definite opinion about its definition. For example, some call tomato a vegetable, the latter argue that it is a fruit, others dismiss altogether, calling it … Read more

Birch sap – one of the best medicines

Now, many gardeners are looking forward to the turn of the summer season, which this year is a little late because of the weather. Planting of many plants in the country is delayed by 2-3 weeks. Indeed, what can be done until the fruit and vegetable garden covered with a thick layer of snow. But … Read more

Dahlia – King of flowers

One of the most elegant and at the same time spectacular colors can be called Dahlia. Since ancient times, this plant has attracted the attention of mankind, and for a time was considered really the king, it was in the garden of the kings and nobles, as legend has it, grew these flowers. Incidentally, the … Read more

Fruits with the exotic appearance

In our world, there is so much more interesting and unusual. It happens, just watch and wonder. What if this extraordinary miracle is still tasty and healthy? Let’s look at the fruit, which is difficult to find in the market or supermarket, and that change all notions of how food should look like. Now, being … Read more

Distinguishing characters of Pteridophytes

Pteridophytes: 1. The life cycle shows distinct heteromorphic alternation of generation. 2. Plant body of Sporophyte is dominant phase. 3. Sporophyte is differentiated into true root, stem and leaves. 4. Vascular tissue i.e xylem and phloem are present. Xylem lacks vessels but tracheids are present. In phloem sieve tubes and companion cells are absent. 5. … Read more


This division includes club mosses, horsetails and ferns. The oldest known pteridophytes are fossils from the end of the silurian period, 380 million years ago. Pteridophyta constitutes the earliest known vascular plants. Vascular plants are those plants that contain the vascular tissue that is the conducting tissues of xylem and phloem. Sometimes all vascular plants … Read more


There are fossil records of blue green algae (Cyanobacteria) living 3000 million years ago and many eukaryotic organisms have existed for more than 1000 million years. However the first organisms to colonize the land, primitive plants did so only 420 millions years ago. The greatest simple problem to overcome in making the transition from water … Read more


In Algae the plant body shows no differentiation into root, stem or leaf or true tissues. Such a plant body is called thallus. They do not have vascular tissues. The sex organs of this group of kingdom plantae are not surrounded by a layer of sterile cells. Algae are autotrophic organisms and they have chlorophyll. … Read more

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