Category «Microbiology»

Fungal Diseases

• Fungal diseases, as the name implies are caused by fungi. • The fungal diseases of man are either mycoses (caused by infection of fungi) or toxicoses (caused by toxic fungal metabolites). Ringworm or Tinea • Fungi belonging to genera Trichophyton, Epidermophyton and Microsporum are responsible for ringworm or tinea in man. Mode of transmission …

CBSE Board 2015 Microbiology Practice Questions

1. Which antibiotic was extensively used to treat American soldiers wounded in World War II? 2. Name two growth regulators commonly used in plant tissue culture. 3. Give the scientific name of the plant from which cocaine is obtained. 4. Write down the following terms in expanded form (i) ELISA (ii) MALT 5. Give one …

Bacteria

In 1676 Anton Van Leeuwenhoek discovered the microbial world by his simple microscope. It was only after the invention of compound microscope by Hooke in 1820, that bacteria came to lime light. These very minute creatures were designated as “small microscopic species” or “ Infusorial animalcules”. Louis pasteur(1822-95 ) made a detailed study of bacteria …

The Main Themes of Microbiology

Medical Microbiology This branch deals with microbes that cause diseases in humans and animals. Researchers examine factors that make the microbes virulent and mechanisms for inhibiting them.   Public Health Microbiology and Epidemiology These branches monitor and control the spread of diseases in communities. Institutions involved in this concern are the U.S. Public Health Service …

Economic importance of Fungi

Fungi are useful to mankind in many ways. These organisms play an important role in medicine, agriculture and industry. They have harmful effects also. Useful aspects of fungi The antibiotic Penicillin was discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming of Britain from the fungus Penicillium notatum, which in 1940s emerged as a ‘wonder drug’ for the …

Ascocarps

The ascomycetes or sac fungi are identified by the presence of spores called ascospores, which are enclosed in a sac like structure. These ascocarps are of three types: 1.Cleistothecium: These are closed and spherical ascocarps. eg. Eurotium 2. Perithecium: These are flask shaped ascocarps. eg. Neurospora. 3. Apothecium : These are cup shaped ascocarps. eg.Peziza.

Classification of Fungi

Traditionally fungi have been regarded as plants. At one time fungi were given the status of a class and together with the class algae formed the division Thallophyta of the Plant Kingdom. The thallophyta were those plants whose bodies could be described as thalli. A thallus is a body, often flat, which is not differentiated …

Nutrition in Fungi

Fungi are heterotrophic in their mode of nutrition that is they require an organic source of carbon. In addition they require a source of nitrogen, usually organic substances such as amino acids. The nutrition of fungi can be described as absorptive because they absorb nutrients directly from outside their bodies. This is in contrast to …

Fungi

Conventionally Fungi have been included in plant kingdom. But in pursuance of Whittaker’s five kingdom classification Fungi and Plants (Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes Gymmosperms and Angiosperms) are described here as two separate kingdoms. Angiosperms are not described in detail here. Salient Features Fungi are non chlorophyllous, eukaryotic, organisms. They are a large and successful group. They …

Significance of Viruses

1. Viruses are a kind of biological puzzle to biologists since they are at the threshold of living and non-living things showing the characteristics of both. 2. They are very much used as biological research tools due to their simplicity of structure and rapid multiplication. They are widely used in research especially in the field …

Cell Wall

Plant and bacterial cell membranes are surrounded by a thick cell wall. Bacterial cell wall The bacterial cell is enclosed within a wall that differs chemically from the cell wall of plants. The cell wall contains a rigid framework of polysaccharide chain cross linked with short peptide chains and its outer surface is coated with …