Biotechnology in Agriculture

The term Agriculture refers to cultivation of Plants, Animals for food, fuels, clothes, Medicine and other products which are essential for our living. Conventional Agriculture is practiced differently by different people around the globe. It is well known that agricultural products have varying quality from place to place. Some of the agricultural products cannot be … Read more Biotechnology in Agriculture

Algal Biofuel Production

Algae offer a promising alternative to terrestrially grown vascular plants as a future source of biofuel (feedstock) Large-scale biofuel production may require the use of algae instead of land plants: The alternative energy industry is poised for rapid global growth as attempts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on nonrenewable fossil fuels gain traction. … Read more Algal Biofuel Production

Production of Micro & Macro molecules

“Biotechnology” emerged as a result of integration of biological science wit technology. It is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents to provide goods and services. Processes such as baking, brewing and cheese making have been in use for many years and were developed long before man … Read more Production of Micro & Macro molecules

Citric Acid

Almost all of the world’s output of citric acid, an intermediate in tricarboxylic acid cycle, is produced microbiologically. Citric acid cycle is a food preservative and flavoring agent of fruit juices, candy, ice cream, marmalade and other products. It is also used in pharmaceuticals as an iron chelator (binder), as a preservative for store blood, … Read more Citric Acid


Ethanol can be produced chemically from petroleum or microbiologically from fermentable carbohydrates. It is produced in the anaerobic fermentation of glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Corn & other material must undergo saccharification before they can be fermented. The carbohydrate in corn starch is enzymatically released by treating the ground corn with a amylase and gluco-amylase. Molasses … Read more Ethanol


Vinegar literally means ‘sour wine’. It is manufactured by the bacterial oxidation of ethanol in fermented wine, beer or cider and used as a condiment and preservative. The initial step is the fermentation of wine by varieties of S.cerevaciae. This leads to the formation of ethanol which is a prolonged reaction. After completion of fermentation, … Read more Vinegar

Yoghurt Production

 A form of fermented milk has been produced in most countries where milk is drunk., incubation takes 12 hours at 32o to reach the set state of natural yoghurt. The popularity of the product is increased by the addition of sugar and fruit to disguise the acidity. Yoghurt is a nutritious dessert and its manufacture … Read more Yoghurt Production

Manufacture of Cheese

Traditional cheese making depended on the natural micro-organisms present in the dairy and milk. Microbes sour that milk, producing lactic acid and lowering the pH, so that when rennet (from the stomach of young mammals) was added, the milk curdled and separated into solid curds and liquid why (which was used as a substitute for … Read more Manufacture of Cheese

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