Body Fluids and Circulation
1. In the figure given below, which blood vessel represents vena cava?
(a) A-Aorta, B-Pulmonary vein, C-Pulmonary arteries, D-Left ventricle, E-Semilunar valves, F-Left auricle, G-Right auricle, H-Superior vena cava, l-Right ventricle, J-Tricuspid valves, K-Inferior vena cava
(b) A-Aorta, B-Pulmonary artery, C-Pulmonary veins, D-Left auricle, E-Tricuspid valves, F-Left ventricle, G-Right ventricle, H-Inferior vena cava, l-Right auricle, J-Semilunar valves, K – Superior vena cava
(c) A-Aorta, B-Superior vena cava, C-Inferior vena cava, D-Right ventricle, E-Tricuspid valves, F-Right auricle, G-Left auricle, H-Pulmonary vein, l-Right ventricle, J-Semilunar valves, K-Pulmonary artery
(d) A-Aorta, B-Superior vena cava, C-Inferior vena cava, D-Left ventricle, E-Semilunar valves, F-Left auricle, G-Right auricle, H-Pulmonary artery, l-Right ventricle, J-Tricuspid valves, K-Pulmonary vein.
3. Identify the following type of blood cells and mark the correct option.
5. Which one of the following statements is correct with regard to the principle of safe blood transfusion?
(a) The donor’s red blood corpuscles should not contain antibodies against the recipient’s serum.
(b) The recipient’s serum should not contain antigens against the donor’s antibodies.
(c) The recipient’s serum should not contain the antibodies against the red blood corpuscles of the donor.
(d) The recipient’s red blood corpuscles should not contain antibodies against the donor’s antigen.
6. In which of the following situations, there is a risk factor for children acquiring erythroblastosis foetalis?
(a) Mother is Rh -ve and father is Rh -ve
(b) Mother is Rh -ve and father is Rh +ve
(c) Mother is Rh +ve and father is Rh +ve
(d) Mother is Rh +ve and father is Rh -ve
7. The problem of electrical discontinuity caused in the normal heart by the connective tissue separating the atria from the ventricles is solved by
(a) coordinating electrical activity in the atria with electrical activity in the ventricles by connecting them wathe bundle of His
(b) having the A-V node function as a secondary pacemaker
(c) having an ectopic pacemaker
(d) coordinating electrical activity in the atria with electrical activity in the ventricles by connecting them via the vagus nerve.
8. During acute myocardial infarction which of the following changes occurs in the ECG ?
(a) Flattened T wave
(b) Depressed ST segment
(c) Elevated ST segment
(d) Increased length of PQ interval
9. Match Column-I with Column-ll and select the correct option from the codes given below.
(a) A-(iv), B-(v), C-(i), D-(iii), E-(ii)
(b) A-(v), B-(iv), C-(i), D-(iii), E-(ii)
(c) A-(iv), B-(v), C-(i), D-(ii), E-(iii)
(d) A-(v), B-(iv), C-(ii), D-(iii), E-(i)
10. If the heart sound recording and ECG recordings are superimposed then the first heart sound would occur
(a) at the P wave
(b) just after the P wave
(c) just before the QRS complex
(d) just after the QRS complex.
11. Match the common names of diseases listed under column-l with their medical terms listed under column-I with their medical names listed under column-II choose the answer which gives the correct combination of the alphabets of the two columns.
(a) A = s, B = q, C = p, D = r
(b) A = rf B = sf C = q, D = p
(c) A = q, B = s; C = r, D = p
(d) A = s, B = p, C = r, D = q.
12. Which of the following carries blood rich in food materials, such as glucose and amino acids, from intestine to liver?
(a) Dorsal aorta (b) Renal portal vein (c) Mesenteric artery (d) Hepatic portal vein
13. A heart murmur indicates a defective
(a) sinoatrial node (b) atrioventricular node (c) bundle of His (d) heart valve.
14. Human blood maintains homeostasis in the internal
environment of the body by
(a) replenishment of nutrients and oxygen and elimination of metabolic wastes from the extracellular fluid
(b) replenishment of oxygen and elimination of C02
(c) maintenance of blood sugar level and conversion of aminoacids into urea and destruction of wornout RBCs
(d) maintenance of ion concentration in the blood and body fluids by eliminating nitrogenous wastes.
15. During ventricular systole
(a) oxygenated blood is pumped into the pulmonary artery and deoxygenated blood is pumped into the artery
(b) oxygenated blood is pumped into the aorta and deoxygenated blood is pumped into the pulmonary vein
(c) oxygenated blood is pumped into the pulmonary vein and deoxygenated blood is pumped into the pulmonary artery
(d) oxygenated blood is pumped into the aorta and deoxygenated blood is pumped into the pulmonary artery.
True or False type questions
16. Systole represents contraction and diastole represents expansion or distension of heart chambers.
17. Ebstein’s disease is a congenital downward displacement of the bicuspid valve into the left ventricle.
18. P wave represents depolarisation of atria as blood is pumped into the atria.
19. Heart failure leads to congestion of the lungs.
20. Eosinophils resist infections, and are associated with allergic reactions.
21. In amphibians and reptiles, the left atrium receives deoxygenated blood to gills/lungs/skin and the right atrium gets the oxygenated blood.
22. The first heart sound, lubb or St is less loud, low pitched with a frequency of 25-45 cycles/second.
23. 30% of ventricular filling is passive, while 70% of blood is pumped into ventricles during the systole.
24. Blood pressure is inversely related to the rate of heart beat.
25. The cardiac output of an athlete will be much higher than that of an ordinary man.
Match The Columns
26. Match Column-I with Column-ll and select the correct option from codes given below.
28.(A) Complete the given passage with appropriate words or phrases.
1. Lengthening of (i) interval or increase in distance between (ii) and (iii) spikes is due to inflammation or infection of conducting bundles in the region of atria and (iv) node.
2. Enlarged (v) and (vi) waves are signs of myocardial infarction.
(B) Correct the errors, wherever present, in the given lines.
Blood is slightly acidic with pH 6.8. It forms 55% of the total ECF or 16-18% of the total body weight.
Assertion & Reason
In each of the following questions, a statement of Assertion is given and a corresponding statement of Reason is given just below it. Of the statements, mark the correct answer as :
(a) if both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) if both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) if A is true but R is false
(d) if both A and R are false.
29. Assertion : Dupp is produced during ventricular diastole.
Reason : It is given out during closure of pulmonary and aortic valves.
30. Assertion : Human heart is myogenic, as it generates its own electrochemical impulse.
Reason : It is not under any neural or endocrine control.
31. Assertion : Veins are usually superficial and 64% of body blood is present in veins.
Reason : Arteries are deep seated usually and contain 16% of the total blood.
32. Assertion : Arteriosclerosis is a group of degenerative diseases characterised by hardening of arteries due to thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls. Reason : Atherosclerosis is also considered to be a type of arteriosclerosis.
33. Assertion : In single circulation, blood moves through heart only once, during completion of whole circuit in the body.
Reason : Only the oxygenated blood flows through heart.
34. Assertion : Roughly 8% of arterial blood passes into brain.
Reason : Brain represents 2% of body weight, but consumes nearly 20% of oxygen and glucose consumed by the body.
35. Assertion : In human beings, erythrocytes have an average life span of 120 days.
Reason: The aged erythrocytes attract auto-antibodies, after which, they are attacked by macrophages in the sinusoids of liver and spleen.
36. Assertion: Haemoglobin is iron-containing respiratory pigment and is a conjugated protein.
Reason : The globin part is made of four polypeptides, while heme consists of 4 ferric ions of iron.
37. Assertion : The blood volume decreases while standing in erect posture.
Reason : The decrease in blood volume in erect posture can be upto 15%.
38. Assertion : In the first ten days of a new born, a large number of red blood corpuscles are destroyed. Reason : This is one of the causes of jaundice in new borns.
Figure Based Questions
39. Refer to the figure given below and identify A, B, C, D and E.
40. Fill in the blanks using given letters and appropriate words / phrases.
(a) The lymphatic vessels of left side unite to form (i). This duct begins at the (ii). which is a sac-like dilation situated in front of the (iii) and
(iv) lumbar vertebrae. It discharges its lymph into the (v) .
(b) The lymphatic vessels of the right side of thorax, head and neck unit to form (vi) which discharges its lymph into (vii) .
1. (b) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (c) 5. (c) 6. (b) 7. (a) 8. (c) 9. (a) 10. (d)
11. (a) 12. (d) 13. (d) 14. (d) 15. (d)
17. False. It is due to displacement of tricuspid valve into right ventricle.
18. False. P wave represents depolarisation which leads to contraction of both atria.
19. True 20. True
21. False. Left atrium receives oxygenated blood from gills/ lungs/skin and right atrium gets deoxygenated blood from body.
23. False. 70% of blood enters passively in ventricles without being pumped.
24. True 25. True
26. A-(vi), B-(vii), C-(i), D-(ii), E-(iii), F-(v), G-(iv)
27. A-(i, vii), B-(viii, xiii), C-(iv, xi), D-(ii, xiv)f E-(v, ix), F-(vi; x), G-(iii, xii)
28. (A) (i) PQ, (ii) P, (iii) R, (iv)AV,(v) Q (vi) R.
(B) Blood is slightly
acidic alkaline with pH 6.8 7.4. It forms 55% 30-35% of the total ECF or 16-18% 6-8% of the total body weight.
29. (a) 30. (c) 31. (b) 32. (b) 33. (c)
34. (b) 35. (a) 36. (c) 37. (b) 38. (a)
39. A-Cisterna chyli B-Thoracic duct
C-Right lymphatic duct D-Left subclavian vein
E-Right subclavian vein
40. (a) (i) B; (ii) A; (iii) first, (iv) second, (v) D (b) (vi) C; (vii) E