1. Ca2+ level is controlled by
(a) thyroid <b) parathyroid
(c) both (a) and (b) (d) adrenal.
2. Mammalian thymus is mainly concerned with
(a) regulation of calcium level
(b) regulation of body growth
(c) immunological functions
(d) secretion of serotonin.
3. Which one of the following is proteinaceous in chemical nature?
(a) Thyroxine, adrenaline and melatonin
(b) FSH, LH (c) Progesterone
(d) Oxytocin and vasopressin
4. Which one of the following is not a catecholamine ?
(a) Dopamine (b) Epinephrine
(c) Norepinephrine (d) Serotonin
5. Which one of the following is termed temporary
(a) Pineal (b) Thymus
(c) Placenta (d) Kidney
6. Neurosecretory hormones are secreted in pars nervosa and stored in
(a) Herring bodies (b) Starling bodies
(c) carotid bodies (d) Rathke’s pouch.
7. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine, produced by the thyroid gland, are synthesized from iodine and
(a) phenylalanine (b) tyrosine
(c) tryptophan (d) cholesterol
8. The hormone acts on the same cell that produces it, is known as
(a) juxtacrine action (b) paracrine action (c) autocrine action (d) homocrine action.
9. Hormone produced in allergic reaction is
(a) nitric oxide (b) enterokinase
(c) parathormone (d) glucocorticoid
10. Mineralocorticoids are secreted from which region of adrenal cortex ?
(a) Zona glomerulosa (b) Zona fasciculata
(c) Zona reticularis (d) All of these.
Previous Exam Section Questions
1. Low Cat+ in the body fluid may be the cause of
(a) tetany (b) anaemia
(c) angina pectoris (d) gout. (AIPMT 2010)
2. A health disorder that results from the deficiency of thyroxine in adults and characterised by (i) a low metabolic rate, (ii) increase in body weight and (iii) tendency to retain water in tissues is
(a) simple goitre (b) myxoedema
(c) cretinism (d) hypothyroidism.
3. Which one of the following pair of organs includes only the endocrine glands?
(a) Thymus and testes (b) Adrenal and ovary
(c) Parathyroid and adrenal
(d) Pancreas and parathyroid (AIPMT 2008)
4. Which hormone causes dilation of blood vessels, increased oxygen consumption and glucogenesis?
(a) Glucagon (b) ACTH
(c) Insulin (d) Adrenaline (AIPMT 2006)
5. Which one of the following is not a second messenger in hormone action?
(a) cAMP (b) cGMP
(c) Calcium (d) Sodium
(AIPMT 2006, WB JEE 2011)
6. Which of the following statements regarding glucagon is false?
(a) It is secreted by a-cells of Langerhans.
(b) It acts antagonistically to insulin.
(c) It decreases blood sugar level.
(d) The gland responsible for its secretion is heterocrine
gland. (AIIMS 2007)
7. LH and FSH are collectively called
(a) somatotrophins (b) oxytocin
(c) gonadotrophins (d) luteotrophic.
(BHU 1993, 2006, UP-CPMT 2008)
8. Progesterone hormone is secreted by which of the following glands ?
(a) Corpus luteum
(c) Mature Graafian follicle
(BHU 2003, 2007)
9. Which one of the following hormones never reaches cytoplasm?
(a) Estrogen (b) FSH
(c) Progesterone (d) Testosterone
10. Antidiuretic hormone is also known as
(a) secretin (b) vasopressin
(c) gastrin (d) renin.
11. During emergency, which one of the following hormone is important?
(a) Aldosterone (b) Adrenaline
(c) Thyroxine (d) Calcitonin
(UP-CPMT 2000, 2008, BHU 2006)
12. Which is responsible for sleep wake cycle movement?
(a) Dopamine (b) Melatonin
(c) Serotonin (d) Adrenaline
(AMU 2006, Kerala 2010, AIPMT Mains 2011)
13. Rapid increase in the blood sugar level of a patient can be immediately reduced by
(a) injecting insulin intravenously
(b) injecting insulin intramuscularly
(c) administering glucagon intravenously
(d) consuming large quantities of insulin tablets.
14. Which of the following hormones is steroid ?
(a) Epinephrine (b) Thyroxine
(c) Estrogen (d) Gonadotropin
15. Diabetes mellitus is caused due to deficiency of
(a) glucose (b) vasopressin
(c) insulin (d) glucagon.
16. Diabetes insipidus is due to the insufficient release of
(a) insulin (b) glucagon
(c) ADH (d) thyroxine.
(UP-CPMT 1996,1999, AIIMS 1994, AMU 2011)
17. Erythropoietin is secreted from
(a) pituitary gland (b) pancreas
(c) adrenal gland (d) kidney. (J & K 2011)
18. Given below is an incomplete table on hormones, their source glands and one major effect of each human body. Identify the option representing correct grouping of hormone, its gland and effect.
|Gland||Secretion||Effect on Body|
|A||Oestrogen||Maintenance of secondary sexual characters|
|Alpha cellsof Islets of Langerhans||B||Raises blood sugar level|
|Anterior pituitary||C||Over secretion leads to gigantism|
(AIPMT Prelims 2011)
19. You met a person who has bulging/protruding eyes, tachycardia and higher body temperature. He suffered from
(a) hyperthyroidism (b) acromegaly
(c) diabetes (d) cretinism.
20. Which one of the following pairs of hormones are the examples of those that can easily pass through the cell membrane of the target cell and bind to a receptor inside it (mostly in the nucleus)?
(a) Insulin, glucagon
(b) Thyroxine, insulin
(c) Somatostatin, oxytocin
(d) Cortisol, testosterone. (AIPMT Prelims 2012)
21. What is correct to say about the hormone action in humans?
(a) Glucagon is secreted by p—cells of islets of Langerhans and stimulates glycogenolysis.
(b) Secretion of thymosins is stimulated with aging.
(c) In females, FSH first binds with specific receptors on ovarian cell membrane.
(d) FSH stimulates the secretion of estrogen and progesterone.
(AIPMT Prelims 2012)
22. Choose the mismatched pair from the following.
(a) Insulin – Gluconeogenesis
(b) Glucagon – Glycogenolysis
(c) Oxytocin – Contraction of uterine muscles
(d) Prolactin – Milk production in mammary glands
23. Which of the following is a mixed gland ?
(a) Thyroid gland (b) Adrenal gland
(c) Pituitary gland (d) Pancreas
24. From which cell of islets of Langerhans, is insulin secreted?
(a) Alpha cells (b) Delta cells
(c) Beta cells (d) All of these
(DPMT 1995, UP-CPMT 1996, Odisha 2012)
25. Which of the following hormones has no effect on heart beat?
(a) Thyroxine (b) Oxytocin
(c) Adrenaline (d) Noradrenaline
26. The cancer arising in C cells of thyroid gland is called
(a) papillary cancer (b) medullary cancer
(c) anaplastic cancer (d) follicular cancer.
27. The heart beat increases at the time of interview due to
(a) secretion of adrenaline
(b) corticotrophic hormone
(c) hypersecretion of renin
(d) autidiuretic hormone secretion.
(AIIMS 1999, BHU 2012)
28. Select the option which correctly matches the endocrine gland with its hormone and its function.
|(a)||Placenta||Estrogen||Initiates secretion of
|(b)||Corpus Luteum||Estrogen||Essential for maintenance of endometrium|
|(c)||Leydig’s cells||Androgen||Initiates the production
development and the secretion of estrogens
(NEET – Karnataka 2013)
29. Select the answer which correctly matches the endocrine gland with the hormone it secretes and its function/ deficiency symptom.
|(a)||Thyroid gland||Thyroxine||Lack of iodine in diet results in goitre|
|Oxytocin||Stimulates uterus contraction during child birth|
|Over secretion simulates abnormal growth|
30. Identify the hormone with its correct matching of source
(a) Oxytocin – posterior pituitary, growth and maintenance of mammary glands.
(b) Melatonin – pineal gland, regulates the normal rhythm of sleepwake cycle.
(c) Progesterone – corpus luteum, stimulation of growth and activities of female secondary sex organs.
(d) Atrial natriuretic factor – ventricular wall, increases
the blood pressure. (AIPMT 2014)
Assertion and reason based questions
The following questions consist of two statements each : assertion (A) and reason (R). To answer these questions, mark the correct alternative as directed below:
(a) If both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) If both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) If A is true but R is false.
(d) If both A and R are false.
1. Assertion: Diabetes insipidus is marked by excessive urination and too much thirst.
Reason : Antidiuretic hormone is secreted by the posterior lobe of pituitary gland.
2. Assertion: Glucagon is said to lower down the blood sugar level.
Reason: Glucagon increases the utilisation of glucose in the tissues and the synthesis of liver glycogen.
3. Assertion : Excessive amounts of calcitonin in the blood causes softening of bones.
Reason : Calcitonin causes mobilisation of calcium from the bones to the blood plasma.
4. Assertion : Immunity theory of ageing is associated with thymus gland.
Reason : Thymosin hormone is responsible for maturation of lymphocytes.
5. Assertion : Erythropoietin hormone is secreted from kidney in oxygen shortage conditions.
Reason : Erythropoietin stimulates the bone marrow to increase the production of RBCs.
6. Assertion : T4 is converted to T3 by removal of one iodine in the liver, kidney and some other tissues. Reason : T4 is secreted in smaller amounts but it is more active and several times more potent than T3.
7. Assertion : In exophthalmic goitre, there is excessive secretion of thyroid hormone.
Reason : Thyroid gland enlarges in exophthalmic goitre.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Fill in the blanks.
(i) ________regulate the development, maturation
and functions of male accessory sex organs.
(ii) The hormone________is a modified amino
(iii) Hormone secreting cells called neurosecretory cells,
are abundant in the________.
(iv) All the pituitary hormones are molecules made
chiefly of monomers of________.
(v) All the hormones of adrenal cortex are synthesized
2. Name the four tropic hormones secreted by anterior pituitary and the respective hormones released by them.
3. Why injury to adrenal cortex is not likely to affect the secretion of adrenaline?
4. Which type of hormones control the menstrual cycle in human beings and how?
5. If hormone receptor molecules are removed from target organs then what will happen?
Assertion & Reason
Short Answer Type Questions
1. (i) Androgens (ii) epinephrine
(iii) hypothalamus (iv) amino adds
2. The anterior pituitary secretes four tropic (i.e., stimulatory) hormones: (i) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which stimulates the release of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and calcitonin from the thyroid gland; (ii) adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), which stim ulates the release of corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex; (iii) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which stimulates the release of estrogens from the ovarian follicle and (iv) luteinizing hormone, which stimulates release of androgens in males and progesterone in females from the ovarian corpus luteum.
3. Adrenal glands or (suprarenal glands) are two triangular endocrine glands, each of which covers the superior surface of a kidney. Each gland has two parts, the medulla and cortex. The medulla forms the grey core of the gland; it consists mainly of chromaffin tissue and is stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system to produce adrenaline and noradrenaline. The cortex is a yellowish tissue surrounding the medulla. It is stimulated by pituitary hormones (principally ACTH) to produce three kinds of corticosteroid hormones, which affect carbohydrate metabolism (e.g., cortisol), electrolyte metabolism (e.g., aldosterone), and the sex glands (oestrogens and androgens). Thus injury to adrenal cortex is not likely to affect the secretion of adrenaline.
4. Menstrual cycle is controlled by several endocrinal parameters. In beginning of the cycle FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) of pituitary initiates development of an ovarian follicle. A growing ovarian follicle gradually secretes increasing amount of estrogen. This in turn leads to sudden surge of LH secretion by the pituitary. As the LH (luteinizing hormone) level in blood suddenly increases, there is ovulation. Progesterone released by a corpus luteum after ovulation prepares the uterus for a possible pregnancy. If there is no fertilization progesterone level falls and there is beginning of a new cycle.
5. Hormones are chemical messengers which are released by endocrine glands and transported via blood. Once a hormone enters the blood stream, it can reach almost any cell in the body. However, each hormone affects only certain kinds of cells, which make up that hormone’s target organ. Hormones recognize target organs by the presence of specific receptor molecules on the plasma membrane of target organs. If these receptor molecules are removed then a hormone will be unable to give any response.