1. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
(a) Brunner’s glands are submucosal.
(b) Irregular folds of gastric mucosa are rugae.
(c) Glisson’s capsule is the connective tissue sheath of hepatic lobule.
(d) Mesothelium or serosa lies in close proximity to the circular layer of muscularis.
2. Which one of the following pairs of food components in humans reaches the stomach totally undigested ?
(a) Starch and fat
(b) Fat and cellulose
(c) Starch and cellulose
(d) Protein and starch
3. Effect of some compounds (present in partially digested food) on pancreatic secretion is depicted in the bar graph. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 represent:
4. Which of the following inhibits gastric HCI secretion during a meal?
(a) Stimulation of the parasympathetic nerves to the enteric nervous system
(b) The sight and smell of food
(c) Distension of the duodenum
(d) Distension of the stomach
5. Match Column-I with Column-ll and select the correct option from the codes given below.
7. Identify, whether the given nutrients are absorbed by active transport, simple diffusion or facilitated transport.
III. Vitamin K
IV. Amino acids
Choose the correct option accordingly.
(a) I- Active transport (b) I – Facilitated transport
II- Active transport II- Simple diffusion
III- Facilitated transport III- Active transport
IV- Simple diffusion IV- Active transport
(c) I- Active transport (d) I – Simple transport
II- Facilitated transport II- Simple transport
III- Simple diffusion III- Facilitated transport
IV- Active transport IV- Active transport
8. Examine the figure of gastric glands given below and identify the labelled parts A to D.
9. Go through the following statements regarding the absorption of nutrients. Identify whether they are true or false; then choose the correct option accordingly.
I. Absorption of monosaccharides, alcohol, some water and medicines like asprin occurs in the stomach.
II. Fatty acids cannot be absorbed directly.
III. Glycerol can reach into the blood and lymph directly.
IV. Maximum absorption of water (90%) takes place in the small intestine.
V. Large intestine and mouth are not the site of absorption.
(a) I, II and IV are true while III and V are false
(b) I, II, III are true while IV and V are false
(c) II, III and IV are false while I and V are true
(d) I and II are false while III, IV and V are true.
10. Go through the following statements regarding : the absorption of fats. Find correct and incorrect statements and choose an option accordingly from the codes given below.
I. Micelles and chylomicrons are concerned with the absorption of fats.
II. Chylomicrons are water soluble droplets of fat which contain triglycerides, sterol and phospholipids.
III. Micelles are water soluble droplets of fatty acids and glycerol which are formed by the action of : bile pigments on fats and glycerol.
IV. Chylomicrons, the protein coated small vesicles are released from the intestinal cells into the blood stream by lacteals. :
(a) II and IV are correct while I and III are incorrect
(b) I, III and IV are correct, while II is incorrect
(c) I, II and IV are correct while III is incorrect
(d) IV and I are correct while II and III are incorrect.
12. During prolonged fasting, in what sequence are the following organic compounds used up by the body?
(a) First carbohydrates, next fats and lastly proteins
(b) First fats, next carbohydrates and lastly proteins
(c) First carbohydrates, next proteins and lastly lipids
(d) First proteins, next lipids and lastly carbohydrates.
13. Match the following nutrition/vitamin deficiencies in column-I with causes/deficiencies in column-II
(a) A – p, B -1, C – q, D – r, E – s
(b) A – q, B – r, C – s, D – p, E -1
(c) A – r, B – p, C – s, D -1, E – q
(d) A – r, B – s, C – p, D -1, E – q
14. Which of the following controls the peristaltic movement of the intestine?
(a) Sacral plexus
(b) Brachial plexus
(c) Discoidal plexus
(d) Auerbach’s plexus
15. Which of the given options are true for beri-beri?
1. A crippling disease prevalent among the native population of sub-Saharan Africa.
2. A deficiency disease caused by lack of thiamine (vitamin B.).
3. A nutritional disorder in infants and young children when the diet is persistently deficient in essential protein.
4. Occurs in those countries where the staple diet is polished rice.
5. The symptoms are pain from neuritis, paralysis, muscle wasting, progressive oedema, mental deterioration and finally heart failure.
(a) 2,4 and 5 (b) 1, 2 and 4
(c) 1,3 and 5 (d) 2, 3 and 5
True or False type questions
16. Muscularis is formed by smooth muscles usually arranged into an outer circular and inner longitudinal layer.
17. Rennin is a proteolytic enzyme found in gastric juice of infants which helps in digestion of milk proteins.
18. The mucus and bicarbonates in the gastric juice help in lubrication and protection of mucosal epithelium from excoriation by concentrated hydrochloric acid.
19. Carbohydrates in the chyme are hydrolysed by pancreatic amylase into monosaccharides.
20. The lymph vessels ultimately release the absorbed substances into the body cells.
21. About 60% of starch is hydrolysed in the mouth by the enzyme salivary amylase into disaccharide- maltose.
22. The parietal or oxyntic cells secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor, which is essential for absorption of vitamin B complex.
23. Saliva is mainly produced by three pairs of salivary glands — the parotids, the sub-maxillary and submandibular.
24. Liver is the largest gland, situated in the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm.
25. Peptic or chief cells secrete the proenzyme pepsinogen.
26. Match Column-1 with Column-ll and select the correct option from codes given below.
27. Match Column-1 with Column-ll and select correct options from codes given below. There can be more than one match for items in Column I.
Passage Based Questions
28.(A) Complete the given passage with appropriate words or phrases.
(i) and (ii) being insoluble, cannot be absorbed into the blood. They are first incorporated into small droplets called (iii) which move into the intestinal mucosa. They are re-formed into very small protein coated fat globules called (iv) which are transported by the (v) in the villi.
(B) Correct the errors, wherever present in the given table.
Assertion & Reason
In each of the following questions, a statement of Assertion is given and a corresponding statement of Reason is given just below it. Of the statements, mark the correct answer as :
(a) if both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) if both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) if A is true but R is false
(d) if both A and R are false.
29. Assertion : Gastric amylase contributes little to digestion of carbohydrates.
Reason: The action of gastric amylase is inhibited by highly acidic conditions.
30. Assertion : Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are present in the epithelium of the gastric glands. Reason : They increase in number when the gastric epithelium is damaged.
31. Assertion : Enamel is the hardest substance of the human body.
Reason : It covers the external surface of the tooth.
32. Assertion : Auerbach’s plexus controls the secretion of intestinal juice.
Reason : Meissner’s plexus controls the peristalsis in alimentary canal.
33. Assertion : Liver helps kidneys in maintaining body fluid osmoregulation.
Reason : Liver produces angiotensinogen, which is converted to angiotensin II by rennin.
34. Assertion : Obstruction of hepatic or bile duct due to gall stones etc. results in obstructive jaundice.
Reason : In this disease, the bile is absorbed into the liver causing yellowing of eyes and skin.
35. Assertion : Brunner’s glands are found only in the mucosa of the duodenum.
Reason : They secrete abundant mucus and intestinal juice rich in enzymes.
36. Assertion : Secretin was the first hormone to be discovered by scientists.
Reason : It increases bile and gastric secretion.
37. Assertion : Glucose and galactose are absorbed by active transport in stomach and jejunum.
Reason: The most rapidly transported monosaccharide is glucose with galactose running a close second.
38. Assertion : Sodium is absorbed from small intestine by active transport.
Reason : This process is coupled to the movement of potassium.
Figure Based Questions
39. Refer to the given figure. Identify the labelled parts A, B, C, D and E.
40. Fill in the given blanks using the letters assigned above of different structures. You may use appropriate phrases, where required.
The cystic duct and common hepatic duct join to form (i) which passes downwards posteriorly to join (ii) to form (iii). also called (iv). Its opening is guarded by (v). (vi) surrounds the opening of (vii), before it is joined with the (viii)
I. (d) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (c) 5. (c)
6. (c) 7. (c) 8. (a) 9. (a) 10. (b)
II. (c) 12. (a) 13. (c) 14. (d) 15. (a)
16. False. Muscularis is formed by smooth muscles usually arranged into an inner circular and an outer longitudinal layer.
17. True 18. True
19. False. Carbohydrates in the chyme are hydrolysed by pancreatic amylase into disaccharides.
20. False. The lymph vessels ultimately release the absorbed substances into the blood stream.
21. False. Only 30% of starch is hydrolysed in the mouth.
22. False. Intrinsic factor is essential for absorption of vitamin B12 only.
23. False. The three pairs of salivary glands are parotids, sub-maxillary or submandibular and sublingual.
24. True 25. True
26. A-(vi), B-(iii), C-(vii), D-(v), E-(iv), F-(i), G-(ii)
27. A-(v, viii), B-(i, xiv), C-(ii, xi), D-(iii, xiii), E-(iv, xii), F-(vi; x), G-(vii, ix)
28. (A) (i) Fatty acids, (ii) glycerol, (iii) micelles, (iv)
chylomicrons, (v) lymph vessels or lacteals.
(B) 29. (a) 30. (b) 31. (c) 32. (d) 33. (c)
34. (c) 35. (d) 36. (c) 37. (c) 38. (c)
39. A – Hepatopancreatic ampulla
B – Main pancreatic duct C – Sphincter of Oddi D – Bile duct E – Sphincter of Boyden
40. (i) D; (ii) B; (iii) A; (iv) ampulla of Vater; (v) C;(vi) E; (vii) D; (viii) B.