Mineral Nutrition AIIMS AIPMT PMT MCAT JIPMER IBO Questions
1. According to carbonic acid exchange theory of mineral salt absorption by roots, which of the following is incorrect?
(a) CO2 released by the respiration of roots combines with soil H20 to form H2C03.
(b) H2CO3 dissociates into H+ and HCO3 ions in soil solution.
(c) H+ ions may be exchanged for cations adsorbed on clay particles.
(d) Cations thus released into soil solution are adsorbed on root cells in exchange for anions (e.g., Cl’ions).
2. Which of the following statements will not hold true if a plant is grown in only sand (S), only clay (C) and only humus (H)?
(a) Water availability to the roots will be more in (C) and (H) as compared to (S).
(b) Ability of roots to penetrate (S) and (H) will be low as compared to (C).
(c) Nutrient availability to roots will be less in (S) as compared to (C) and (H).
(d) Oxygen availability to roots will be low in (C) as compared to (S) and (H).
3. You observe that a plant’s younger leaves, not the older ones, are yellowing. You recall that the cause of plant sickness can be diagnosed by leaves which are yellowing. What is the most likely cause of your plant’s blight?
(a) Too much shade.
(b) Lack of nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria.
(c) A deficiency in a mobile mineral nutrient.
(d) A deficiency in a non-mobile mineral nutrient.
4. Which one is the correct summary equation of nitrogen fixation ?
(a) N2+8e–+8H++8ATP-» NH3+H2+16ADP+16P
(b) N2+8e–+8H++16ATP—> 2NH3+H2+16ADP+16P
(c) 2NH3+4O2-» 2H++2H2O+2NO3
(d) 2NH3+3O2—> 2NO2–+2H++2N2O
5. Refer to the given reaction.
a-Ketoglutaric acid + NH4+ + NADPH
(a) oxidative ami nation
(b) reductive amination
6. Deficiency of which of the following elements delays flowering in plants?
(a) Fe, Mn, Mo (b) N, S, Mo
(c) Ca, Mg, K (d) N, K, S
7. Match Column-I with Column-ll and select the correct option from the codes given below.
A. Nitrosomonas, (i) Ammonia to nitrite Nitrosococcus
B. Nitrobacter, (ii) Nitrite to nitrate Nitrocystis
C. Pseudomonas, (iii) Nitrate to N2 Thiobacillus
(a) A-(i), B-(ii), C-(iii)
(b) A-(i), B-(iii), C-(ii)
(c) A-(ii), B-(i), C-(iii)
(d) A-(ii), B-(iii), C-(i)
8.Select the correctly matched pair.
(a) Zinc Helps to maintain ribosome structure
(b) Magnesium Needed during the formation of mitotic spindle
(c) Calcium Plays a role in the opening and closing of stomata
(d) Manganese Needed in the splitting of water to liberate oxygen during photosynthesis
9. The deficiencies of micronutrients not only affects the growth of the plants but also its vital functions, such as photosynthetic and mitochondrial electron flow. Among the list given below, which group of three elements will mostly affect, both photosynthetic and mitochondrial electron transport?
(a) Cu, Mn and Fe (b) Co, Ni and Mo
(c) Mn, Co and Ca (d) Ca, K and Na
10. The enzyme responsible for the reduction of molecular nitrogen to the level of ammonia in the leguminous root nodule is
(a) nitrogenase (b) nitrite reductase (c) nitrate reductase (d) all of these.
11. Leghaemoglobin helps in
(a) nitrogen fixation
(b) protecting nitrogenase from 02
(c) destroying bacteria
(d) transport of food in plants.
12. Which of the following elements causes necrosis due to its deficiency?
(a) N, K and S
(b) N, K, Mg and Fe
(c) Mn, Zn and Mo
(d) Ca, Mg, Cu and K
13. Identify the labels in the given flow diagram which links the major nitrogen pools. Choose the correct combination from the options given below.
(a) A – Nitrification, B – Ammonification, C – Nitrobacter, D – Nitrosomonas, E-Denitrification
(b) A – Ammonification, B – Denitrification, C – Nitrification, D – Nitrosomonas, E – Nitrobacter
(c) A – Denitrification, B – Nitrobacter, C – Nitrification, D – Nitrosomonas, E – Ammonification
(d) A – Nitrobacter, B – Denitrification, C – Nitrosomonas, D – Ammonification E – Nitrification
14. Which of the following is used as an alternative for minerals?
(a) Rubber (b) Polythene
(c) Decron (d) Cement
15. From______acid, more than 17 amino acids are formed through transamination.
(a) aspartic (b) glutamic
(c) acetic (d) pyruvic
True or False Questions
16. The enzyme nitrogenase is highly sensitive to molecular oxygen and requires aerobic conditions.
17. Ureides are compounds with high nitrogen to carbon ratio which are transported via the xylem vessels.
18. Nitrogen fixation requires a strong oxidising agent and energy in the form of ATP.
19. Spherical outgrowths or nodules can be seen in any leguminous plant, just after flowering.
20. Plants compete with animals for limited nitrogen that is available in the soil.
21. Zinc activates carboxylases and is needed for the synthesis of auxins.
22. Manganese and chlorine are both essential for the assimilation of carbon dioxide during dark reaction of photosynthesis.
23. Deficiency symptoms of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium are visible first in young leaves.
24. The enzyme nitrogenase is a Mo – Fe protein and catalyses the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia.
25. Anabaena and Nostoc are free living nitrogen fixing BGA.
Match The Columns
26. Match Column-I with Column-ll and select the correct option from the codes given below.
correct option from the codes given below.
A.Boron (i) Mitotic spindle
B.Frankia (ii) Methionine
C.Rhizobium (iii) Leguminous
D.Molybdenum (iv) Non-leguminous
E.Sulphur (v) Redox reaction
F.Iron (vi) Inhibition of cell division
G.Calcium (vii) Carbohydrate metabolism
27. Match Column-I with Column-ll and select correct options from codes given below. There can be more than one match for items in Column-1.
A.Micronutrient (i) Potassium
B.Ammonification (ii) Anion-cation balance
C.Nitrification (iii) Iron
D.Denitrification (iv) Nitrogenase
E.Potassium (v) Nitrosomonas
F.Molybdenum (vi) Nitrate reductase
G.Macronutrient (vii) Nitrobacter
(viii) Bacillus vulgaris
Passage Based Questions
28. (A) Complete the given passage with appropriate words or phrases.
The two most important amides (i) and (ii) are formed from (iii) and (iv). respectively. Since amides contain more nitrogen than the amino acids, they are transported to other parts of the plant via (v). (B) Read the passage and correct the errors, wherever present.
Manganese stimulates potassium translocation in the root apex. Therefore, deficiency of manganese may induce deficiencies of potassium and copper.
Assertion & Reason
In each of the following questions, a statement of Assertion is given and a corresponding statement of Reason is given just below it. Of the statements, mark the correct answer as:
(a) if both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) if bothAand Rare true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) if A is true but R is false
(d) if both A and R are false.
29. Assertion: Iron is an important constituent of proteins involved in transfer of electrons, like ferredoxin and cytochromes.
Reason : It is reversibly oxidised from Fe3* to Fe2+ during electron transfer.
30. Assertion: Boron is absorbed from soil as BO33+ or B4O72+.
Reason : Calcium is required for the uptake and utilization of boron.
31. Assertion : Macronutrients are generally present in large amounts, in excess of 10 mmole kg-1 of plant matter.
Reason: Micronutrients or frame elements are needed in very small amounts, less than 10 mmole Kg-1 of plant matter.
32. Assertion : Nitrogen is the mineral element required by plants in the greatest amount.
Reason : It is required by metabolically active cells and senescent cells.
33. Assertion: The deficiency of essential elements causes indicative morphological changes in plants called hunger signs.
Reason: These first appear in the meristematic tissues, in case of actively mobilised essential elements.
34. Assertion : The deficiency of any element can cause multiple symptoms in plants.
Reason : Same symptoms may be caused by the deficiency of one or several different elements.
35. Assertion : The process of conversion of nitrogen to ammonia only is nitrogen fixation.
Reason : Nitrogen fixation is only biological.
36. Assertion: Rhizobium and Frankia cannot fix nitrogen as free living aerobes.
Reason: They can fix nitrogen only as symbiont, when they become anaerobic.
37. Assertion: The movement of ions into apoplast occurs through ion channels and trans-membrane proteins passively.
Reason: The entry or exit of ions to and from symplast is an active process.
38. Assertion : Transamination involves the transfer of amino group from one amino acid to the keto group of keto acid.
Reason : a-ketoglutaric acid is the main amino acid, from which the transfer of NH2, the amino group takes place, and other amino acids are formed by transamination.
Figure Based Questions
39. Refer to the figure below and identify the labelled parts A, B and C
40. A. Identify the structure of D
B. Fill in the blanks using the letters above.
(a) (i) occurs 3 times in this reaction.
(b) (ii). molecules of ATP are used for each molecule (iii)
(c) (iv) is released at the end of the reaction to bind to another molecule of (v).
I. (d) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (b) 5. (b)
6. (b) 7. (a) 8. (d) 9. (a) 10. (a)
II. (b) 12. (d) 13. (b) 14. (c) 15. (b)
16. False. Nitogenase requires anaerobic conditions.
17. False. Ureides are exported via the transpiration stream.
18. False. Nitrogen fixation requires a strong reducing agent, along with ATP.
19. False. Nodules can be seen in leguminous plant just before flowering.
20. False. Plants compete with microbes for the limited nitrogen in soil.
22. False. Manganese and chlorine are both needed for splitting of water to liberate oxygen.
23. False. They are first visible in senescent leaves.
24. True 25. True
26. A-(vii), B-(iv), C-(iii), D-(vi), E-(ii), F-(v), G-(i)
27. A-(iii, xii), B-(viii, xiv), C-(v, vii), D-(ix, x), E-(ii, xi), F-(iv, vi), G-(i, xiii)
28. (A) (i) asparagine, (ii) glutamine, (iii) aspartic acid, (iv)
glutamic acid, (v) xylem vessels.
(B) Manganese stimulates inhibits potassium calcium translocation in the feet shoot apex. Therefore, deficiency excess of manganese may induce deficiencies of potassium calcium and copper iron.
29. (c) 30. (d) 31. (d) 32. (c) 33. (c)
34. (b) 35. (d) 36. (b) 37. (b) 38. (c)
39. A – Enzyme-nitrogenase B – Nitrogen gas C- +2 H or Reduction.
40. A. (i)
B. (a) – (i) C; (b) – (ii) 8; (iii) D; (c) – (iv) A, (v) B.