Ecology & Environment MCQs Part IV

1) A dominant species in a succession is that
a) Which is not replaced by others easily
b) Which has a major influence on the local environment
c) Which is larger in size or larger in numbers
d) All of the above

2) If the vegetation of a place is burnt, the first new growth to appear
will be

a) Lichens
b) Mosses
c) Grasses
d) Liver worts

3) An ecosystem is a self sufficient, self maintaining dynamic system
in which there is a

a) Functioning together of communities and abiotic components
b) Noncyclic, unidirectional flow of the energy
c) Cyclic exchange of nutrients
d) All of the above

4) Food webs are 3-D web of interrelations in which several food
chains are interlinked. It helps to provide

a) Alternative pathways for flow of energy
b) More variety and quality of food at each trophic level
c) Shelter
d) All of these

5) The lowest species diversity is found in which ecosystem?
a) Steppes
b) Grassland
c) Deciduous forest
d) Tundra

6) The stability of a grassland ecosystem depends upon
a) Carnivores
b) Grazers
c) Neither
d) Both

7) The least productive ecosystem is
a) Coastal seas
b) Very deep lakes
c) Grasslands
d) Moist forests

8) Which food chain is directly dependent upon solar radiation?
a) Grazing
b) Parasitic
c) Detritus
d) All of these

9) In a predator (grazing) food chain
a) Organic food is obtained by killing the prey
b) Organic food is dead matter like fallen leaves
c) Food is taken from host
d) Organic food is manufactured by autotrophs only

10) Which sea is referred to as an oceanic desert?
a) Sea of Japan
b) Sargasso sea
c) Red sea
d) Arabian sea

11) In which ecosystem is the species diversity highest?
a) Grassland
b) Rainforest
c) Chaparral
d) Desert

12) Deep lakes, poor in inorganic nutrients like phosphates, are called
a) Monomictic
b) Oligotrophic
c) Eutrophic
d) Dimictic

13) Which of the following belong to the category of primary

a) Fishes
b) Snakes and frogs
c) Eagle
d) Insects and cattle

14) The food chain that starts from plants and goes from smaller
to larger animals is

a) Detritus food chain
b) Saprophytic food chain
c) Parasitic food chain
d) Predator food chain

15) The pelagic forms living in the intertidal zone of the sea coast
are called littoral. The pelagic forms that live in the sublittoral
or subtidal zone where sea bottom is 8-200 m deep are called

a) Neritic
b) Hadal
c) Abyssal
d) Bathyal

16) Which food chain produces greater available energy?
a) Diatoms-fish-large fish-birds-man
b) Green plant-rabbit-man
c) Green plant-grass hopper-frog-snake-peacock
d) Green plant- rabbit-wolf-man

17) A coral reef represents a/an
a) Estuary biome
b) Oceanic biome
c) Open sea biome
d) Coastal biome

18) Which is true for a pyramid of numbers?
a) Secondary consumers are always fewer in number than primary

b) Top consumers are very few in number
c) Producers are more in number than primary consumers
d) All of these

19) The occupational address of a species is often called as

a) Biome
b) Niche
c) Environment
d) Habitat

20) The pyramid of numbers deals with the number of
a) Individuals in a community
b) Species in a given area
c) Subspecies in a community
d) Individuals in a trophic level

21) On a global basis, maximum productivity (biomass) is shown

a) Grasslands
b) Taiga forests
c) Tropical forests
d) Temperate forests

22) Which has the lowest productivity?
a) A corn field
b) Grassland
c) Forest
d) Ocean

23) All ecosystems have no boundary because
a) They require minerals for their functioning
b) They cannot occur in isolation
c) They are large in size
d) They require light from all sources

24) Which has the greatest biomass?
a) Decomposers
c) Producers
d) Herbivores

25) The ecological niche of an organism is its
a) Foraging area
b) Profession and way of life
c) Habitat
d) Defended territory for occupation

26) In ecological pyramids, which is not shown?
a) Decomposers
b) Top consumers
c) Herbivores

27) In a detritus food chain, the primary consumers are
a) Insects, larva, nematodes
b) Herbivores
c) Bacteria and fungi
d) All of these

28) In a detritus food chain, the primary consumers are
a) Insects, larva, nematodes
b) Herbivores
c) Bacteria and fungi
d) All of these

29) Which ecological pyramid can never occur in an inverted

a) Pyramid of numbers
b) Pyramid of species
c) Pyramid of energy
d) Pyramid of biomass

30) A detritus food chain in comparison to a grazing food chain

a) Equal
b) Broader
c) Longer
d) Shorter

31) A ecological pyramid, devised by C. Elton in 1927 is a graphic
diagram that shows the relationship between

a) Transfer of food through food chains
b) Organisms
c) The various trophic levels of a food chain
d) Populations and communities within an ecosystem

32) What is correct regarding a pyramid of number?
a) It is inverted in parasitic food chains and tree ecosystem
b) It is upright (vertical) in grass land and pond where predator and detritus food chains occur
c) It may be upright or inverted or spindle like
d) All are correct statements

33) Which is a correct statement?
a) Sugarcane is the most productive cropland agro ecosystem
b) The most productive is a coral reef ecosystem
c) The least productive ecosystems are deserts and deep lakes
d) All are correct

34) A better idea of the productivity of an ecosystem can
be obtained by

a) Pyramid of energy
b) Pyramid of biomass
c) Pyramid of numbers
d) All of the above

35) Which food chain can support the largest number of organisms?
a) The longer food chain
b) The shorter food chain
c) The food web
d) All of the above

36) Which is a wrong statement about biomes?
a) Diversity is maximum in tropical forests
b) Diversity of organisms decreases as we move from high altitude to low altitude
c) Diversity increases from high latitude to low altitude
d) Diversity remains the same from high altitude to low altitude

37) Ox-bow lakes
a) Are parts of a river which has been cut off from the main course
b) Are found near an estuary
c) Occur in areas of glaciation
d) Occur in tropical forests

38) Which is a wrong statement?
a) The tropical rain forest is a jungle and not a forest
b) Lianas are woody climbers and found in tropical rain forests
c) Mosses and lichens are common in the tundra
d) Temperate deciduous forests are five-storeyed forests

39) Which is wrong for the tundra (arctic deserts) which are found
in arctic regions and not in the southern hemisphere?

a) Face a long severe winter with a growing season of only a few months of summer
b) Precipitation is in the form of snow
c) It is a treeless region where there is no rainfall
d) None of these

40) The amount of living matter present in an ecosystem at a
given time is called the

a) Productivity
b) Standing state
c) Standing crop
d) Biomass

41) Decomposers (micro-consumers which are also called reducers,
transducers, osmotrophs and saprotrophs) are a must in an ecosystem
as they promote the

a) Cyclic exchange of minerals
b) Flow of energy
c) Both A and B
d) None of the above

42) Man in an ecosystem is a
a) Producer
b) Primary consumer
c) Secondary consumer
d) Both B and C

43) Desert biomes do not support vegetation because they lack
a) Sufficient water
b) Sufficient light
c) Favourable temperature
d) Sufficient nutrients

44) Agro-ecosystems are manmade ecosystems to raise crops, and called monocultures. These are unstable because of
a) Lack of diversity
b) Being man made
c) Lack of biological control
d) All of the above

45) Which grasslands have the richest and deepest soil?
a) Steppes of Eurasia
b) Prairies of Canada
c) Pampas of South America
d) Tussocks of New Zealand

46) The dominant second trophic level in a lake ecosystem is
a) Nekton
b) Benthos
c) Zooplankton
d) Phytoplankton

47) Decomposers are those which
a) Operate in living body and simplify step by step the organic constituents of the cell
b) Operate in relay terms, simplifying step by step, the organic constituents of the dead body
c) Operate to make chemical substances resulting in a dead issue
d) Bring about digestion of waste in the body

48) Rainfall is absent but snow precipitation is common in the
a) Taiga
b) Chaparral
c) Tropical deserts
d) Arctic deserts (Tundra)

49) A biome with high temperature and high rainfall is the
a) Coral reef
b) Tropical rain forest
c) Scrub forest (chaparral)
d) Taiga

50) Which is true about the taiga ?
a) True taiga is not found in India
b) North temperate evergreen coniferous forest
c) Forests of the northern temperate area just south of the tundra
d) All of these

51) Diversity in a tropical rainforest is maximum. Which statement is correct?
a) They have 70% of all insects and species of trees
b) They occupy one twelth of the total land but have more than half of the flora and fauna of the world
c) 85% of all birds are found here
d) All are correct

52) Chaparral are evergreen broad leaved scrub forests (sclerophyllous)
found in Mediterranean area, Australia and Chile. These are characterised by

a) Little rain in summer
b) Rain in winter and a dry summer
c) Heavy rain in summer
d) Rain throughout the year

53) In the grasslands, trees do not replace the grasses
as part of an ecological succession because of

a) Insects and fungi
b) Limited sunlight and paucity of nutrients
c) Water limits and fire
d) Cool temperature and good soil

54) Which one of the following statement correctly defines the
term biomass in forestry?

a) The dry weight of the standing crop at any moment of time
b) The dry weight of the crop when it has attained the maximum growth
c) The dry weight of the crop when it has attained the maximum height
d) The dry weight of the crop when the spread of its canopy is maximum

55) Secondary plant secession can occur after
a) Farmland is cultivated
b) Forests have been burned
c) Bare rock is exposed from a retreating glacier
d) Sand dunes are created

56) In the food and energy pyramid, the sequence from the base upwards

a) Aquatic insects-fishes-flowering-plants- trees
b) Primitive animals-higher animals-man who eats other animals
c) Plants-animals that eat plants-carnivorous animals
d) Aquatic plants-terrestrial plants-carnivorous animals-large trees-man

57) The organisms that thrive upon the remains of dead plants
and animals are categorized as

a) Carnivores
b) Omnivores
c) Scavengers
d) Predators

58) In the recycling of mineral elements within an ecosystem
the directly acting organisms are called

a) Primary consumers
b) Decomposers
c) Secondary consumers
d) Producers

59) In a food chain, the largest population is that of
a) Producers
b) Decomposers
c) Primary consumers
d) Tertiary consumers

60) From the first lower trophic level to an upper trophic level energy is degraded from high grade from low grade form.This can be made clear from
a) First law of thermodynamics
b) Second law of thermodynamics
c) Both
d) None

61) The unit of biosphere is
a) Ecosystem
b) Biome
c) Community
d) Population

62) The nature of a climax community will depend upon
a) Climate
b) Water
c) Soil fertility
d) Temperature

63) Food levels in an ecosystem are called
a) Herbivore levels
b) Trophic levels
c) Consumer levels
d) Producer levels

64) Nitrogen is a critical element in ecosystem because
a) It is a very labile element
b) It is abundant in the atmosphere
c) Nitrogen fixation comes by microbes
d) It is an essential plant nutrient

65) The niche of a species in an ecosystem refers to its
a) Centre of origin
b) Competitive ability
c) Place of occurrence
d) Function at its place of occurrence

66) The succession as a result of changes in communities on the earth’s surface is called
a) Biotic succession
b) Climatic succession
c) Physiographic succession
d) Geographical succession

67) In an ecosystem bacteria are considered as
a) Microconsumers
b) Macroconsumers
c) Primary consumers
d) Secondary consumers

68) A lake ecosystem is
a) Artificial
b) Abiotic
c) Natural
d) Hydrological

69) The ecological pyramids are of
a) Two types
b) Three types
c) Four types
d) Five types

70) The tendency of an organism to maintain internal equilibrium
in response to any change in its environment is called
or a tendency of biological system to resist changes
so as

a) Epistasis
b) Homeostasis
c) Bioenergetics
d) Holocoenosis

71) 10% energy transfer law in food chain was first given

a) Lindemann
b) Transley
c) Elton
d) Raunkiaer

72) The keystone species in an ecosystem are those which
a) Are present in the maximum number
b) That are most frequent
c) Attain a large biomass
d) Contribute to the ecosystem properties

73) Which of the following ecosystems has the highest rate of
gross primary production?

a) Grassland
b) Mangroves
c) Coral reefs
d) Equatorial forest

74) Who proposed the concept of ecological niches?
a) Odum
b) Elton
c) Clements
d) Transley

75) In any ecosystem or biological system there is transfer
of energy at different trophic levels. The study of energy
transfer at different trophic levels is known as

a) Bio system
b) Bioenergetics
c) Geobiocoenosis
d) Holocoenosis

76) Dense evergreen vegetation of broad sclerophyllous leaves
and shrubs with fire-resistant resinous plants is known as

a) Chaparral vegetation
b) Savannah vegetation
c) Steppe grassland
d) Tundra vegetation

77) The biomass of producers within a specified area will be maximum in a
a) Forest ecosystem
b) Grassland ecosystem
c) marsh ecosystem
d) Lake ecosystem

78) The biotic community together with its physical environment
form an interacting working system called

a) Ecosystem
b) Phytogeography
c) Ecology
d) Phytosociology

79) The phytoplankton of a pond ecosystem act as
a) Producers
b) Primary consumers
c) Decomposers
d) Secondary consumers

80) The number of individuals of a species in a particular
ecosystem at a given time remains constant due to

a) Human activity
b) Parasites
c) Predators
d) Available food

81) The pyramid of numbers in a grassland ecosystem is
a) Linear
b) Upright
c) Irregular
d) Inverted

82) An ecological niche is a
a) Kind of plant-animal association
b) Habitat of nocturnal animals
c) Habitat of a small community
d) Habitat of a plant

83) The ocean surge of the Peru current, recurring every 5-8 years or so in the East Pacific of South America is widely known as
a) Magnox
b) Gulf Stream
c) El Nino
d) Aye aye

84) Which is not a primary coloniser?
a) Mosses
b) Lichens
c) Viruses
d) Blue green algae

85) Who proposed the concept of ecological pyramids?
a) Tansley
b) Elton
c) Elements
d) Odum

86) Sal (Shorea robusta) forests are
a) Rainforests
b) Deciduous forest
c) Evergreen forest
d) None of the above

87) The total amount of living material at the various levels of
a food chain is depicted by

a) Pyramid of biomass
b) Pyramid of energy
c) Pyramid of number
d) All the above

88) Tropical forests are dense due to
a) High temperature and less rain
b) Wild animals
c) High temperature and excess rain
d) Low temperature and excess rain

89) Bergman’s rule states that
a) Aquatic animals are larger as compared to terrestrial ones
b) The organisms of hotter areas are darker in colour
c) The mammals and birds of colder areas are generally larger than those of hotter regions
d) The mammals and birds of hotter areas undergo aestivation in summer

90) Decomposers occupy a trophic level

91) As biomass passes from one trophic level to another,
the amount of total energy

a) Remains unaffected
b) Increases
c) Declines
d) None of above

92) Which one receives rain during winter and faces drought
during summer?

a) Grassland
b) Chapparal
c) Savannah
d) Steppes

93) An animal active during dawn and dusk is called
a) Vesperal
b) Diurnal
c) Auroral
d) Crepuscular

94) Energy enters an ecosystem through its
a) Herbivores
b) Carnivores
c) Producers
d) Decomposers

95) Decomposers are
a) Autotrophs
b) Heterotrophs
c) Autoheterotrophs
d) Orangotrophs

96) A snake feeding on a rat is an example of
a) Primary consumer or herbivore
b) Secondary consumer and primary carnivore
c) Tertiary consumer and secondary carnivore
d) Primary consumer and primary carnivore

97) Which of the following habitats show the highest
diversity of living species?

a) Grassland
b) Deserts
c) Tropical rainforests
d) Temperate forests

98) The forest cover of India according to the ‘State of Forests Report 1997’ of the Ministry of Environment and Forest is
a) 11.5%
b) 17.55%
c) 18.27%
d) 19.27%

99) The interaction between biotic and abiotic components
leads to the formation of a

a) Community
b) Species
c) Population
d) Society

100) The amount of carbon dioxide fixed annually through
photosynthesis is about




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