Ecology & Environment MCQs Part I

1) A desert animal which does not drink water is the
a) Kangaroo rat
b) Kangaroo
c) Opossum
d) Camel

2) The parasitic plant Cascuta possesses
a) Single cotyledon
b) Two cotyledons
c) No cotyledon
d) Many cotyledons

3) Which of the following is the correct statement?
a) Ecology is the study of organisms in a reciprocal relationship with the environment
b) Environment does not play any role in determining the morphology and anatomy of organism
c) The anatomy and physiology of an organism are not interrelated
d) The study of distribution of animals is called paleontology

4) Which of the following mammal has nucleated mature erythrocytes?
a) Camel
b) Horse
c) Dog
d) Zebra

5) The roots of mangrove plants exhibit
a) Positive geotropism
b) Photosynthesis
c) Negative geotropism
d) None of the above

6) The scientific study of soil in respect of its formation, texture, type
and dynamics is called

a) Pedology
b) Agronomy
c) Forensic science
d) Agrobiology

7) The resemblance of one organism to another of a different species for the sake of protection is termed as
a) Mimicry
b) Predation
c) Adaptation
d) Camouflage

8) Which of the following plants has flowers resembling a female wasp?
a) Mangifera indica
b) Ophrys muscifera
c) Selaginella lephidophylla
d) Melocanna bambusoids

9) Biosphere (the livable part of earth) extends to a distance of …. km from the bottom of the ocean to the peak of the mountain
a) 7.5 km
b) 12.0 km
c) 22.5 km
d) 75.0 km

10) The most complex level of biological organization is the
a) Biosphere
b) Population
c) Community
d) Ecosystem

11) Which of the following is a short term adaptation in organisms?
a) Tanning of mammalian skin
b) Phototropism and geotropism in plants
c) Hibernation and aestivation in animals
d) All the above

12) Plants bear severe cold due to
a) Development of bark
b) Development of scales around young buds
c) Defoliation
d) All the above

13) Desert plants are unique because
a) They are leafless
b) They have fleshy leaves
c) They have succulent stems covered by a thick epidermis
d) All the above

14) Which of the following is a wrong statement about night-blooming flowers?
a) They do not attract pollinators
b) Many are white
c) They are generally scented
d) They are relatively very small

15) Geotropism is an example of
a) Long term adaptation
b) Short term adaptation
c) Adaptation towards heat
d) Adaptation towards changes in light

16) Female mosquitoes suck human blood because they obtain … from a blood meal
a) Chemicals for fertilization
b) Globins for egg formation
c) Chemicals acting as sex attractants
d) Malarial parasites as their food

17) Which one of the following events in a garden is not directly affected by light?
a) Flowering
b) Seed germination
c) Manufacturing of food
d) Fertilization

18) An adaptation in poikilotherms is
a) Hibernation
b) Low body temperature
c) Carnivorous habit
d) Slow movements

19) The assemblage of plants and animals in a climate or geographical area is called a/an
a) Biosphere
b) Biome
c) Ecosystem
d) Ecotone

20) A series of populations through which food passes in an ecosystem is called the
a) Producers
b) Tropic levels
c) Food chain
d) Food web

21) A system is said to be closed when it
a) Receives energy from outside
b) Does not exchange materials with surroundings
c) Is not working in orderly manner
d) None above

22) Adaptations are meant for
a) Change
b) Improvement
c) Survival
d) None above

23) Development of extra melanin due to exposure of skin to sunlight is helpful in
a) capturing harmful uv radiations
b) Keeping the skin efficient
c) Protecting internal organs by absorbing all solar radiations
d) All of the above

24) Plants and animals differ in response to stress since
a) Animals show quick response as compared to plants
b) Plants are fixed but animals migrate
c) Plants change their physiology
d) All of the above

25) Edaphic refers to
a) Fresh water
b) Sea water
c) Climate
d) Soil

26) Which of the following organs helps in physiological adaptation in desert rodents?
a) Spleen
b) Liver
c) Kidney
d) Lungs

27) The dodo (flightless bird) became extinct from
a) Mauritius
b) Indonesia
c) Australia
d) India

28) A system which gets a continuous flow of energy is called a
a) Micropropagated system
b) Closed system
c) Open system
d) Steady state

29) The balance of nature has been disturbed by unequal and indiscriminate
use of

a) Natural resources
b) Artificial resources
c) Synthetic medicines
d) Both B and C

30) The threat to the survival of the human race is
a) Less forest cover
b) Very high population
c) Deforestation
d) High pollution

31) The flow of energy in the food chain is
a) Unidirectional
b) Bi-directional
c) Cyclic
d) None of the above

32) The maintenance of life on earth depends upon
a) Water
b) Molecular oxygen
c) Carbon
d) Radiant energy of the sun

33) Which of the following is a wrong statement?
a) The flow of energy is cyclical
b) Most food chains form links with other food chains so as to form a food web
c) Energy flows from autotrophs to heterotrophs
d) Human dominance on global ecosystem is a recent phenomenon

34) Encystment of amoeba during drought is an example of
a) Cryptobiosis
b) Hibernation
c) Diapause
d) Diastrophism

35) An ecosystem is characterised by having
a) Abiotic and biotic components
b) Water and bacteria
c) Living organisms only
d) Non-living materials only

36) The solid part of the earth is called the
a) Lithosphere
b) Hydrosphere
c) Stratosphere
d) Atmosphere

37) Select the most appropriate statements:
Scientists have undertaken a study of exobiology because

a) Earth has become over crowded
b) People want to live in space
c) It is the human nature to explore the unknown
d) The security of earth can be managed better

38) We must learn to adapt ourselves to
a) disrupt the delicate balance of nature
b) destroy the rich diversity of life
c) nature’s ecological laws
d) None of the above

39) Nitrogen absorbed in blood is released as bubbles if we reach 7.2 km away
from the earth’s surface,
unprotected. It is because

a) There is complete lack of oxygen
b) Atmospheric pressure is increased
c) Nitrogen is needed by the atmosphere
d) There is a drop in atmospheric pressure

40) A hanging retort-shaped nest is built by the
a) Female Weaver Bird
b) Male Weaver bird
c) Male Cuckoo
d) Female Cuckoo

41) The smallest ecosystem is that of the
a) Lawn
b) Grassland
c) Cropland
d) Drops of pond water

42) Which helps in maintaining an ecosystem?
a) Input of energy and biogeochemical cycles
b) Homoeostasis
c) Food web and food chain
d) All the above

43) The biosphere extends to a distance of
a) 12.5 km
b) 22.5 km
c) 28.5 km
d) 42.5 km

44) The common geological changes related to the surface of the earth are
a) Aggregation
b) Degradation
c) Diastropism
d) All the above

46) The food chain is useful for
a) Maintenance of population size
b) Energy flow
c) Passage of biogenetic nutrients
d) All the above

47) Which is a symbiont?
a) Vorticella
b) Paramecium
c) Colpidium
d) Trichonympha

48) Night phosphorescence or glow of sea water is due to
a) Noctiluca
b) Navicula
c) Phacus
d) Dictyostelium

49) Which one of the following causes plague?
a) Salmonella typhimurium
b) Trichinella spiralis
c) Yersinia pestis
d) Leishmania donovani

50) Which of the following causes diphtheria?
a) Corynebacterium
b) Pseudomonas
c) Bacillus diphtheriae
d) Salmonella typhosa

51) Food poisoning in canned foods is caused by infection with
a) Bacillus begatarium
b) Pseudomonas
c) E. coli
d) Clostridium botulinum

52) Some diseases caused by bacteria are
a) Measles, mumps, malaria
b) Tetanus, typhoid, tuberculosis
c) Small pox, sleeping sickness, syphilis
d) Pneumonia, poliomyelitis, psittacosis

53) Tuberculosis is caused by
a) Salmonella
b) Mycobacterium
c) Diplococcus
d) Streptomyces

54) Citrus canker is caused by
a) Pseudomonas scralaris
b) Xanthomonas oryzae
c) Xanthomonas citri
d) Pseudomonas solanacearum

55) Botulism means
a) Bottle fermentation
b) Skin disease
c) Canned food poisoning by Clostridium botulinum
d) Plant disease

56) The bacterium responsible for causing syphilis is
a) Mycobacterium tuberculosis
b) Treponema pallidum
c) Salmonella typhi
d) Bordetella pertussis

57) Anthrax disease of cattle is caused by
a) Bacillus sp.
b) Salmonella sp.
c) Clostridium sp.
d) Brucella sp.

58) A compound which is produced by an organism and inhibits the growth of other
organism is called an

a) Antiallergic
b) Antibiotic
c) Antiseptic
d) Anticoagulant

59) The term antibiotic was coined by
a) Alexander Fleming
b) S.A. Waksman
c) Louis Pasteur
d) Edward Jenner

60) Antibiotics are mostly obtained from
a) Fungi
b) Viruses
c) Bacteria
d) Angiosperms

61) The bacteria responsible for fermentation of dairy milk are
a) Acetobacter
b) Rhizobium
c) Lactobacillus
d) Hay Bacillus

62) Streptomycin is produced by
a) Streptomyces venezuelae
b) Streptomyces griseus
c) Streptomyces scoleus
d) Streptomyces fradie

63) Streptomyces griseus gives the antibiotic
a) Streptomycin
b) Chloromycetin
c) Terramycin
d) Polymixin

64) Who was the first to isolate streptomycin?
a) Twort
b) A. Fleming
c) S. Waksman
d) R. Koch

65) Streptomycin is used to cure the diseases caused by the bacteria
a) Gram-negative
b) Gram-positive
c) Gram neutral
d) Both gram positive and gram negative

66) Streptomyces venezuelae is used to obtain
a) Chloromycetin
b) Streptomycin
c) Tetracycline
d) Aureomycin

67) In encysted Entamoeba which granules are found?
a) Starch
b) Fat
c) Glycogen
d) None of these

68) Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal parasite. It will soon die if kept in fresh water because
a) It will have no food
b) It has no contractile vacuole
c) It has no pseudopodia
d) It has no food vacuole

69) The active form of Entamoeba histolytica feeds upon
a) Erythrocytes, mucosa and submucosa
b) Mucosa and submucosa of colon
c) Food in intestine
d) Blood

70) Another name for Gambia fever is
a) Headache
b) Diarrhea
c) Oriental sores
d) Sleeping sickness

71) If a certain protozoan has two contractile vacuole instead of one, it suggests that it
a) Ingests more water
b) Its respiratory rate is high
c) Excretes more nitrogenous wastes
d) The temperature of environment is very low

72) Haemozoin found in the RBC of man is
a) Porphyrin plus copper
b) Ferrous ion derivative of haem
c) Ferric ion derivative of haem
d) Ferrous ion derivative of mucoproteins

73) Malignant malaria is caused in man due to infection with
a) Plasmodium malariae
b) Plasmodium vivax
c) Plasmodium ovale
d) Plasmodium falciparum

74) The finding that malaria is an “Insect borne disease”, was established by
a) Golgi
b) Grassi
c) Ronald Ross
d) Laveran

75) Malaria fever in man coincides with the liberation of one of the following into the blood:
a) Merozoite
b) Trophozoite
c) Cryptozoite
d) Metacryptozoite

76) Periodic appearance of malaria symptoms occurs when
a) Merozoites attach to liver cells
b) Merozoites enter RBC
c) Signet ring is formed
d) Pyrogens are released in the blood

77) Which is not a locomotory organelle in protista?
a) Flagellum
b) Seta
c) Cilia
d) Pseudopodia

78) African sleeping sickness or Gambia fever is caused by
a) Entamoeba
b) Leishmania
c) Trypanosoma
d) Trichomonas

79) In which group are locomotory organelles absent?
a) Rhizopoda
b) Sporozoa
c) Flagellata
d) Ciliata

80) Which is mismatched?
a) diatoms – silica shell, box like, golden brown
b) euglenoids – flagella, pellicle, eye spot
c) amoeboids – pseudopoda, phagocytes, food vacuoles
d) paramecium-cilia, calcium carbonate shell, gullet

81) Protista which are diploid reproduce sexually by the process of
a) Zygotic meiosis
b) Cyst formation
c) Binary fission
d) Gametic meiosis

82) Which is found in slime moulds but not fungi?
a) non-motile spores
b) amoeboid adult
c) zygote formation
d) photosynthesis

83) The vector for sleeping sickness in man is
a) House fly
b) Tse tse fly
c) Butter fly
d) Mosquito

84) Amoebic dysentery or amoebiasis is caused by
a) Entamoeba coli
b) Entamoeba indica
c) Ameba proteus
d) Entamoeba histolytica

85) Sand fly transmits the germs of
a) Typhoid
b) Encephalitis
c) Sleeping sickness
d) Kala azar

86) Amoeba secretes digestive enzymes that hydrolyze
a) Starch
b) Sugar
c) Protein
d) All the above, along with fats

87) Entamoeba differs from Amoeba in the absence of
a) Pseudopodia
b) Plasmalemma
c) Contractile vacuole
d) Both A and B

88) Plasmodium is a/an
a) Digenetic parasite
b) Ectoparasite
c) Non pathogenic
d) None of these

89) Mycorrhiza is the result of a symbiotic relationship between
a) Algae and Bryophytes
b) Fungi and roots of gymnosperms and angiosperms
c) Algae and roots of gymnosperms
d) Algae and fungus

90) The biotic community together with its non-living environment form an
interacting working system called a/an

a) Ecosystem
b) Ecology
c) Phytogeography
d) Phyto sociology

91) The relation between algae and fungi in a lichen is best described as
a) symbiosis
b) parasitism
c) convenience
d) commensalism

92) Commensalism is an interaction between two species in which
a) Both are harmed
b) Both are benefited
c) One is benefited and the other is neither helped nor harmed
d) One is benefited and the other is harmed

93) Myrremecophily is a beneficial association between some flowering plants

a) Fungi
b) Bacteria
c) Ants
d) Wasps and butterflies

94) If decomposers stop functioning in an ecosystem then the functioning
of the ecosystem will be affected due to

a) Block in the energy flow in the ecosystem
b) Stoppage in the cycling of materials and minerals.
c) Both above
d) None of the above

95) The tendency of a biological system to resist changes so as to remain
in a state of equilibrium is called

a) homeostasis
b) epistasis
c) bioenergetics
d) holocoenosis

96) A natural phenomenon is commonly observed in lakes, ponds and ditches
that there is rich growth of algae and other microorganisms which consume
much of the dissolved oxygen resultinginthe death of fish at night. This

a) litterization
b) transmigration
c) eutrophication
d) estuarization

97) Actively moving animal organisms in any aquatic system are
a) Benthic
b) Phytoplankton
c) Nektons
d) Zooplankton

98) The niche of a species in an ecosystem refers to its
a) Function at its place of occurrence
b) Place of its occurence
c) Competitive ability
d) Center of origin

99) Insectivorous plants are best adapted to
a) Water rich soils
b) Water deficient soils
c) Trace mineral deficient soils
d) Nitrogen deficient soils

100) If decomposes are cleared totally from any environment which of the
following effects will occur?

a) Blockage of mineral flow
b) Blockage of solar energy
c) Light energy flow blockage
d) The rate of decomposition will increase


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