AIPMT PMT NCERT Environmental Issues Questions

1. Steps taken by the Government of India to control air pollution include
(a) compulsory PUC (Pollution under control) certification of petrol driven vehicles which tests for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons
(b) permission to use only pure diesel with a maximum of 500 ppm sulphur as fuel for vehicles
(c) use of non-polluting compressed natural gas (CNG) only as fuel by all buses and trucks
(d) compulsory mixing of 20% ethyl alcohol with petrol and 20% biodiesel with diesel.
2. Photochemical smog formed in congested metropolitan cities mainly consists of
(a) ozone, peroxyacetyl nitrate and NOx
(b) smoke, peroxyacetyl nitrate and S02
(c) hydrocarbons, S02 and C02
(d) hydrocarbons, ozone and SOx.
3. A lake near a village suffered heavy mortality of fishes within a few days. Which of the following could be the reason for this?
(a) Lots of urea and phosphate fertilizer were used in the vicinity.
(b) The area was sprayed with DDT by an aircraft.
(c) The lake water turned green and stinky.
(d) Phytoplankton populations in the lake declined initially thereby greatly reducing photosynthesis.
4. Minamata disease is produced due to the pollution of water with
(a) silver nitrate
(b) methyl isocyanate
(c) crude oil
(d) mercuric chloride.
5. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a measure of
(a) industrial wastes poured into water bodies
(b) extent to which water is polluted with organic compounds
(c) amount of carbon monoxide inseparably combined with haemoglobin
(d) amount of oxygen needed by green plants during night.
6. A natural phenomenon is commonly observed in lakes, ponds and ditches that there is a rich growth of algae and other microorganisms which consume much of the dissolved oxygen, resulting in the death of fish at night. The phenomenon is termed as
(a) litterization (b) transmigration
(c) eutrophication (d) estuarization.
7. Phenomenon where the pollutants pass in higher concentrations through the food chains and accumulate to the maximum in the final consumer is called
(a) biological magnification
(b) eutrophication
(c) biogeochemical cycle
(d) biological degradation.
8. Greenhouse effect means
(a) increase in the temperature of earth due to high concentration of NO2
(b) increase in the temperature of earth due to high concentration of SO2
(c) increase in the temperature of earth due to low concentration of CO2
(d) increase in the temperature of earth due to high concentration of CO2
9. When domestic sewage mixes with river water
(a) small animals like rats will die after drinking river water
(b) the increased microbial activity releases micronutrients such as iron
(c) the increased microbial activity uses up dissolved oxygen
(d) the river water is still suitable for drinking as impurities are only about 0.1 %
10. The table shows the oxygen level, number of green plants and offish in river flowing through four towns. Which town is most likely to be discharging untreated sewage?

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11. Catalytic converter is used in automobiles
(a) to remove lead (b) for converting NOx
(c) to remove H2O (d) all of these.
12. NEERI is situated at
(a) Bhopal (b) New Delhi
(c) Nagpur (d) Baroda.
13. Climate of world is threatened by
(a) increasing concentration of atmospheric oxygen
(b) decreasing amount of atmospheric oxygen
(c) increasing amount of atmospheric CO2
(d) decreasing amount of atmospheric CO2
14. The diagram shows changes in the concentrations of two substances X and Y in the water of a river polluted with sewage.

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What are the substances X and Y

X Y
(a) Carbon dioxide BOD
(b) Oxygen BOD
(c) Carbon dioxide Nitrogen compound
(d) Nitrogen compound Oxygen

15. Lichens are organisms, which are very sensitive to air pollution. The graph shows how the distance from a coal-fired power station affects the number of different types of lichens growing.

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What conclusion can be drawn from this information?
(a) Lichens grow faster near the power station
(b) Lichens grow more slowly near the power station
(c) There are fewer different types of lichens growing near the power station
(d) There are more different types of lichens growing near the power station
16. Which one of the following is a correct option with reference to pathogenic bacteria and DDT?
(a) Bacteria can undergo multiplication and DDT is degraded by living cells.
(b) Bacteria can be degraded by certain living cells and DDT cannot be degraded by living cells.
(c) Bacteria can undergo biological magnification and DDT can be degraded by living cells.
(d) Bacteria can undergo biological magnification and DDT can not be degraded by living cells.
17. One greenhouse gas contributes 14% to total global warming and another contributes 6%. These are respectively identified as
(a) N2O and CO2 (b) CFCs and N2O
(c) CH4 and CO2 (d) CH4 and CFCs.
18. Which method is most commonly used to remove particulate matter present in exhaust of thermal power plant?
(a) Wet scrubbers
(b) Absorption
(c) Electrostatic precipitation
(d) Gravitational method
19. According to the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), particles that are responsible for causing great harm to human health are of diameter
(a) 2.50 micrometers (b) 5.00 micrometers
(c) 10.00 micrometers (d) 7.5 micrometers.

20. Euro II norms were stipulated to control sulphur content at 350 ppm in A and 150 ppm in B and aromatic hydrocarbons are to be contained at C.
Complete the given statement by choosing appropriate option for A-C.
(a) A – Petrol, B – Diesel, C – 44%
(b) A – Diesel, B -Petrol, C – 42%
(c) A – Petrol, B – Diesel, C – 49%
(d) A – Diesel, B – Petrol, C – 45%
21. The term ‘Terror of Bengal’ is used for
(a) Eichhornia crassipes
(b) decreased biological oxygen demand
(c) biomagnification
(d) algal bloom.
22. Read the following statements regarding catalytic converters.
I. These are fitted into automobiles for reducing emission of poisonous gases like NO2 and CO.
II. They have expensive metals like platinum, palladium and rhodium as catalysts.
III. As the exhaust emission passes through catalytic converter nitric oxide splits into nitrogen and oxygen; carbon monoxide is oxidised to carbon dioxide and unburnt hydrocarbons get burnt completely into CO2 and H2O.
IV. Motor vehicles fitted with catalytic converter should use unleaded petrol because lead in the petrol inactivates the catalyst.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) I, II and IV (b) II, III and IV
(c) I, III and IV (d) I, II, III and IV
23. Given diagram represents the greenhouse effect.

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I. Greenhouse gases absorb infrared radiation reradiated from the earth. The absorbed radiations again come to earth’s surface and heat it up.
II. CO2, CH4, CFCs and N2O are the gases which are responsible for greenhouse effect.
III. Increase in the level of greenhouse gases results considerable heating of earth leading to global warming.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) I and II (b) II and III
(c) I and III (d) I, II and III
24. In 1984, the Bhopal gas tragedy took place because methyl isocyanate
(a) reacted with DDT
(b) reacted with NH3
(c) reacted with CO2
(d) reacted with H2O.
25. Which of the following are the indicators of pollution?
(a) Lichen (b) Fungi
(c) Algae (d) None of these
26. Recent reports of acid rains in big industrial cities are due to the effect of atmospheric pollution by
(a) more release of NO2 and SO2 by burning of fossil fuels.
(b) more release of CO2 by burning of coal/wood cutting of forests and increasing populations.
(c) excessive release of NH3 by coal gas industries.
(d) excessive release of CO by incomplete combustion of carbonaceous fuels.
27. Which of the following strategies is not a correct approach to reduce global warming?
(a) Reducing the green-house gas emission by limiting the use of fossil fuels.
(b) Increase the vegetation cover particularly the forest for photosynthetic utilization of CO2.
(c) Minimising the use of nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture for reducing NO2 emission.
(d) Increasing the use of air conditioners, refrigeration unit and production of plastic.
28. Read the following statements and select the correct option.
Assertion: Methane component of greenhouse gases contributing to global warming is about 20 per cent.

Reason: Introduction of multi-point fuel injection engines in automobiles has decreased methane content in the exhausts.
(a) Both statements 1 and 2 are correct and statement 2 is the correct explanation of statement 1.
(b) Both statements 1 and 2 are correct but statement 2 is not the correct explanation of statement 1.
(c) Statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is incorrect.
(d) Both statements 1 and 2 are incorrect.

29. Read the following statements and select the correct option.
Assertion : A suspended particulate matter (SPM) is an important pollutant released by diesel vehicles.

Reason: Catalytic converters greatly reduce pollution caused by automobiles.
(a) Both statements 1 and 2 are correct and statement 2 is the correct explanation of statement 1.
(b) Both statements 1 and 2 are correct but statement 2 is not the correct explanation of statement 1.
(c) Statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is incorrect.
(d) Both statements 1 and 2 are incorrect.
30. Which of the following are correctly matched?
I. Arsenic poisoning – Black foot disease
II. Secondary treatment – Biological process
III. Pyrolysis – Solid soil waste disposal
IV. Tubifex – Water pollution indicator
V. Biomagnification – Degradable pollutants

(a) I, II, III and V
(b) I, III, IV and V
(c) II. III. IV and V
(d) I, II, III and IV

31. In which one of the following, the BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) of sewage (S), distillery effluent (DE), paper mill effluent (PE) and sugar mill effluent (SE) have been arranged in ascending order?
(a) SE <S < PE < DE
(b) SE < PE < S < DE
(c) Pe < S < SE < DE
(d) S < DE < PE < SE
32. Read the statements regarding the biomagnification of DDT in an aquatic food chain.
I. Biomagn ification refers to increase in concentration of the toxicant at successive trophic levels.
II. High concentrations of DDT disturb calcium metabolism in birds, which causes thinning of eggshell and their premature breaking.
III. River water may have a very low concentration of DDT, but the carnivorous fish in that river may contain high concentration of DDT, which is still suitable for consumption by human beings.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) I and II
(b) I and III
(c) II and III
(d) I, II and III
33. Read the following statements regarding particulate matter and select the incorrect ones.
(i) Particulate matter (PM) consists of soot, flyash, dust, spores, pollen grains etc.
(ii) Particulate matter is differentiated into settleable (larger than 10 pm, remaining in air for less than one day) and suspended less than 10 pm remaining in air for more than one day to several weeks) particulate matter.
(iii) SPM (Suspended particulate matter) consists of aerosol, dust and mist.
(iv) Particulate matter causes respiratory diseases such as tuberculosis, allergy and many more diseases in animals.
(v) According to Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), particulate size of 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter are responsible for causing the greatest harm to human health.
(a) (i) and (ii) (b) (iii) and (iv)
(c) (ii) only (d) None of these
34. Some statements are given below each with one or two blanks. Select the option that correctly fills up the blanks.
(i) High concentration of DDT disturbs____in birds, which causes________.
(ii) _______burns more efficiently as compared to petrol and diesel.
(iii) ______is the natural aging of a lake which occurs due to accumulation of________.
(iv) ______reduces the number of organisms which are sensitive to high temperature.
(v) Irreparable computers and other electronic goods  are known as_______.
(a) (i) calcium metabolism, thinning of eggshell (ii) CNG (iii) Eutrophication, nitrates and phosphates (iv) Thermal waste (v) electronic waste.
(b) (i) protein metabolism, thickening of egg shell (ii) CNG (iii) Eutrophication, nitrates and phosphates (iv) Thermal wastes (v) electronic waste.
(c) (i) calcium metabolism, thinning of egg shell (ii) coal (iii) Biomagnification, nitrates and phosphates (iv) Organic wastes (v) inorganic waste
(d) (i) calcium metabolism, thickening of egg shell (ii) CNG (iii) Biomagnification, DDT and mercury (iv) Thermal waste (v) electronic waste.

35. Given below are some differences between primary air pollutants and secondary air pollutants.
Which one of the following is an incorrect difference?

Primary Air Pollutants Secondary Air Pollutants
(a) These persist in the form in which they are added to the environment. These are formed by interaction among the primary pollutants.
(b) These are more toxic than the secondary pollutants. These are less toxic than the primary pollutants.
(c) Examples include DDT, CO2 Examples include ozone, PAN
(d) None of these

36. Which of the following would most likely help to slow down the greenhouse effect?
(a) Ensuring that all excess paper packaging is burned to ashes.
(b) Promoting the use of private rather than public transport.
(c) Converting tropical forests into grazing land for cattle.
(d) Redesigning land-fill dumps to allow methane to be collected.
37. Which of the following figures shows correct relative contribution of greenhouse gases to global warming?

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38. Match Column – I with Column – II and select the correct option.

Column – I Column – II
A Ahmed Khan I Spreading information
and help on the practice of integrated organic farming.
B Ramesh Chandra II. Protecting wildlife
C Amrita Devi Bishnoi III. A plastic sack
manufacturer of Bangalore developed polyblend.

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39. Match Column -1 with Column – II and select the correct option.

Column – I Column – II
A.  Catalytic converter I.  Particulate matter
B  Electrostatic Precipitator II. Carbon monoxide and Nitrogen Oxides
C.  Earmuffs III.  High noise level
D  Landfills IV.  Solid wastes

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40. Which of the following statements is/are correct about ‘Eco San’ toilets?
(a) It is a sustainable system for handling human excreta or faecal matter by using dry ‘Composting Toilets’.
(b) These are very useful for the rural areas where sewer systems are not possible.
(c) These toilets are hygienic, efficient, practical and most effective for the disposal of human waste.
(d) All of these.
41. Sequence of a typical sewage treatment plant operation process will be
(a) Aeration -> Flocculation Sedimentation —> Recarbonation -> Filtration -»Disinfection
(b) Aeration -> Sedimentation -> Flocculation —> Filtration -> Recarbonation -»Disinfection
(c) Flocculation Aeration Recarbonation —> Sedimentation -> Filtration -> Disinfection
(d) Sedimentation -> Filteration Aeration —> Recarbonation Disinfection

42. Match the List -1 with List – II and identify the correct answer from given codes.

List – I List – II
A Dust (i) Small gas borne particles resulting from combustion
B Mist (ii) Black carbon
C Smoke (iii) Suspended small liquid droplets
D Atmospheric Brown cloud (iv) Solid suspended particles

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43. Read the following statements and select the correct option.
Assertion : Chlorofluorocarbons deplete ozone.
Reason: These compounds contain chlorine, bromine and fluorine.
(a) Both statements 1 and 2 are correct and statement 2 is the correct explanation of statement 1.
(b) Both statements 1 and 2 are correct but statement 2 is not the correct explanation of statement 1.
(c) Statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is incorrect.
(d) Both statements 1 and 2 are incorrect.
44. Read the following statements and select the correct option.
Assertion : Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) can be harmful if not operated properly.
Reason: Corona discharge in ESPs produces ozone.
(a) Both statements 1 and 2 are correct and statement 2 is the correct explanation of statement 1.
(b) Both statements 1 and 2 are correct but statement 2 is not the correct explanation of statement 1.
(c) Statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is incorrect.
(d) Both statements 1 and 2 are incorrect.
45. Match Column -1 with Column – II and select the correct option.

Column -I Column -II
A Chipko movement (i) Medha Patkar
B Narmada Bachao (ii) Al Gore Andolan
C Climate Change (iii) Rachel Carson
D Silent Spring (iv) Sundarlal Bahuguna

(a) A – (i), B – (ii), C – (iii), D – (iv)
(b) A – (ii), B – (iii), C – (iv), D – (i)
(c) A – (iv), B – (i), C – (ii), D – (iii)
(d) A – (iii), B – (iv), C – (i), D – (ii)
46. The following table shows mercury concentrations in various organisms living in the same terrestrial habitat.

Organism Mercury concentration (parts per trillion)
Raintree 3000
Sparrow 690000
Spider 89000
Hawk 2800000
Caterpillar 16000

All of the above organisms are related in a single food chain. Which of the following shows the correct food chain?
(a) Raintree —> Spider —» Caterpillar —> Sparrow —» Hawk
(b) Raintree Caterpillar Spider —»Sparrow —> Hawk
(c) Hawk —> Sparrow -> Spider —> Caterpillar —> Raintree
(d) Sparrow —> Hawk Caterpillar Spider Raintree
47. Run-off pollution of a particular river resulted from overuse of chemical fertilizers by a nearby farm. Which of the following graphs correctly shows the resulting changes in levels of oxygen and bacteria in this river?

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48. Which of the following are possible advantages of using bacteria in sewage treatment?
I. Bacteria multiply quickly, thus producing a cheap and abundant source of enzymes.
II. Only one type of bacteria is required to provide the various enzymes necessary for different kinds of waste.
III. It is possible to find bacteria that can break down waste under anaerobic or aerobic conditions.
(a) I only (b) II only
(c) I and III only (d) I, II and III
49. The graph below represents changes in different ecological parameters due to effluent mixing in a stream. The three lines A, B and C represent:

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(a) A: oxygen concentration B: biological 02 demand C: pollution resistant species.
(b) A: pollutant B: aerobic process C: anaerobic process.
(c) A: oxygen concentration B: C02 concentration C: temperature.
(d) A: phosphate concentration B: nitrate concentration C: rate of photosynthesis.

50. A study on the effects of industrialization on the populations of four species of fish, P, Q, R and S in a river was conducted over a period of ten years. The graph below shows the changes in their population over the years. In 1966, a nuclear power station was built nearby and hot water from its cooling reactorwas discharged into the river. In 1971, a metal fabrication factory was built nearby which discharged waste chemicals into the river.

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Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding this study?
(a) The population of P and Q decreased, while population of R and S increased after the discharge of hot water.
(b) P and Q adapted to warmer waters, face increasing competition for food from R and S.
(c) R and S got adapted to warmer waters, face lesser competition from P and Q.
(d) All the four species (P, Q, R and S) were unable to adapt to the chemical wastes.

51. Pollutants are the chemical substances that have the potentiality to adversly affect human beings, 1
natural resources and natural characteristics of environment. The given data states different types of pollutants (P, Q, R, S and T). Which is more harmful?

(a) P (b) Q
(c) R (d) S

52. The pie chart represents the relative contribution of various greenhouse gases (A, B, C and D) to total global 1warming. A and B are mainly responsible for the green house effect. What does A refer to?
(a) CFCs (b) CH4
(c) CO2 (d) O2

53. Water (0.003 ppb) -» zooplanktons (0.04 ppm) -» small fish (0.5 ppm) -»large fish (2 ppm) —> fish eating birds (5ppm).
This represents the biomagnification of DDT pesticide in an aquaticfood chain. Which of the following graphs (A, B and C) is correct regarding it.

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(a) A (b) B
(c) C (d) All of these

Direction (Q.No. 54 and 55). The data states the concentration of biological oxygen demand (BOD) at the three given places D, E and F.

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54. Which place is suitable for survival of fishes and other organisms?
(a) D (b) F
(c) E (d) D and F
55. Study the data carefully. Which graph carefully states the concentration of DO (Dissolved Oxygen) in places D, E and F?

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56. The given table states degree of contamination of river Yamuna in Delhi, Agra and Mathura. Contaminations of river Yamuna at three cities.

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In which city river Yamuna is much cleaner?

(a) Delhi (b) Mathura
(c) Agra (d) None of these.
57. Acid rain is rainfall and other forms of precipitation with a pH of less than 5. Study the data carefully and select the correct statement.

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(a) Plants will be least affected in Sweden.
(b) Leaching of essential minerals of soil would be maximum in Norway.
(c) Toxic minerals left in soil are minimum in Norway.
(d) Fresh water reservoirs are ruined maximum in X. Direction (Q.No. 58 and 59). Recent changes in the mean global temperature are largely attributed to increase in levels of some atmospheric gases and aerosols (small particles suspended in air), many of which have been generated by human activities.
58. Evaluate which of the following statements are true in relation to the role of these gases and aerosols changing global temperature.
A. These gases scatter short-wave radiation emitted from the sun.
B. These gases absorb and re-radiate infrared radiation emitted from the earth’s surface.
C. Aerosols prevent heat convection into space.
D. Regardless of the presence of gases or aerosols, solar radiation itself has increased recently.
(a) A only (b) B only
(c) C and D (d) All of these.
59. For each statement given in Column -1, choose from the list of gases given in Column – II the one that is most likely to be related to that description and select the correct option.

Column -I Column -II
A The gas largely derived from fossil fuels and clearing of forests that contributes the most to global warming. (i) Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
B The gas with the highest global warming potential (compared to CO2). (ii) CH4
C A gas that in the stratosphere is essential to support human life on earth, while in the troposphere it exerts harmful effects on humans. (iii) CO2
D A gas that is not thought to contribute to global warming. (iv) N2
E A gas derived from landfills and the livestock sector that has increased most rapidly in the past 200 years. (v) 03

(a) A – (ii), B – (iii), C – (i), D – (v), E – (iv)
(b) A – (iv), B – (i), C – (v), D – (iii), E – (ii)
(c) A – (v), B – (ii), C – (i), D – (iv), E – (iii)
(d) A – (i), B – (iii), C – (iv), D – (v), E – (ii)
60. An ecologist studied the effects of sewage effluent on the levels of oxygen concentration, bacterial population and algal growth in a fresh water stream. The given graph is plotted based on his findings.

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Select the correct statement regarding the given graph.

(a) There is a fall in oxygen concentration between point Y and 4 km downstream because it is utilized by algae for respiration during day.
(b) There is a rise in oxygen concentration between 4 km and 8 km downstream because bacterial usage of oxygen for respiration and for decomposition is lower.
(c) Bacterial population never recovers from 8 km onwards because all the oxygen is used up by algae.
(d) There is decrease in the level of bacteria between 5 km and 7 km downstream because all the oxygen and organic matter has been used up by algal population.

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Comment ( 1 )
  1. dhrubo
    March 18, 2015 at 1:24 am
    Reply

    Great thinking . I like your post . Thank your very much for your great service .

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