Monthly archives: March, 2012

Waste Disposal Methods

Open dumps release hazardous substances into the air and water Often people dispose of waste by simply dropping it someplace. Open, unregulated dumps are still the predominant method of waste disposal in most developing countries, where government infrastructure, including waste collection, has difficulty serving growing populations. Giant megacities in the developing world have enormous garbage …

Outcomes from Environmental Education

Below mentioned are a few outcomes of Environmental Education The natural context: An environmentally educated person understands the scientific concepts and facts that underlie environmental issues and theĀ  interrelationships that shape nature. The social context: An environmentally educated person understands how human society is influencing the environment, as well as the economic, legal, and political …

The Compound Light Microscope

Anton van Leeuwenhoek of Delft, Holland, constructed simple microscopes composed of double convex glass lenses held between two silver plates. His microscopes could magnify around 50 to 300 times. Microbiologists currently use a variety of light microscopes. Modern microscopes are all compound microscopes. The light microscopy refers to the use of any kind of microscope …

Cytological Techniques

Cells are transparent and optically homogeneous organisations. They can be observed either directly or after preservation. For direct observation, the specimen needs sufficient contrast. Direct observation is possible by using vital stains. Vital stains :- Vital dyes or stains are taken up by living cells without killing them. They selectively stain intracellular structures without affecting …

Microscopy

The cells are very minute and complex organisations. The small dimensions and transparent nature of cell and its organelles pose problems to cell biologists trying to understand its organisation and functioning. Various instruments and techniques have been developed to study cell structure, molecular organization and function. The diameters of majority of cells range from 5-500 …

Methods of grouping animals

There are several ways of grouping animals. In all these methods the basic Taxon remains without any change. However the taxa are rearranged in different groups. All these groupings are mostly provided for the convenience in identifying similar taxa. I. One of the earliest method of grouping the animals could be dividing the Animal kingdom …

Nomenclature methods

Nomenclature forms the basis by which scientists can name and cross refer to organisms. It is an integral part of taxonomy. In fact, modern taxonomy started in 1753 with the publication of first part of Systema by Linnaeus. According to Linnaeus a Species is specified by the combination of both its specific and generic names. …

Major Environmental Laws

We depend on many different laws to protect the water we drink, the air we breathe, the food we eat, and the biodiversity that surrounds us. Most of these laws work to negotiate a balance between the differing interests and needs of various groups, or between private interests and the public interest. In this section …

Methods of taxonomy

Phenetic method or Numerical taxonomy This method involves clustering or grouping of individuals of a taxon or several taxa. Based on overall similarity, identifications are being made. The desired size of the clusters or groupings is called the operational taxonomic unit (OTU). The identification method involves measurement of taxon to taxon similarity or dissimilarity. It …